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The Fundamental Tools Of Science

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Units Some fundamental measurements in all of science: Length Time Mass Many others are combinations of these: Energy, Speed, Volume, Area

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Units International Standard Units (SI, aka metric) –Length (m – meter) –Mass (kg – kilogram) –Time (s – seconds) –Energy (J – joules) –Temperature (K – kelvin)

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Temperature Scales 1 kelvin degree = 1 degree Celsius Notice that 1 kelvin degree = 1 degree Celsius Boiling point of water Freezing point of water Celsius 100 ˚C 0 ˚C 100˚C Kelvin 373 K 273 K 100 K Fahrenheit 32 ˚F 212 ˚F 180˚F

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Temperature Scales 100 o F 38 o C 311 K oFoF oCoCK

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Significant Figures: Digits in a measurement having values that are known with certainty plus one digit having a value that is estimated.

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Reading Volume: Significant Figures on an Instrument

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Measurements that contain a greater number of significant figures are more precise than measurements that contain fewer significant figures. Always select an instrument that gives you the most significant figures. Only report as many sig figs as that instrument allows

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The Rules

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All numbers 1-9 are significant. Zeros are sometimes significant, here's how you can tell: If a decimal point is present, starts on the Pacific side, move across until you get to a 1-9 digit, and start counting to the end If a decimal point is absent, start on the Atlantic side, move across until you get to a 1- 9 digit, and start counting to the end 1005 contains ? sig. Figs., 23,000 has ?, 1,045,090 has ? 40.01 has ?1.100 has ? sig figs, 0.00540 has ?,

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When multiplying or dividing measurements: round the answer to the same number of digits as the measurement having the fewest number of significant figures. When adding or subtracting measurements: round the answer to the same number of decimal places as the measurement having the fewest number of decimal places.

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Identify the LEAST PRECISE measurement. Identify the MOST PRECISE digit (place) within that measurement. Round the answer to this digit (place). 123456.7890 Higher precision Lower precision

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Conversion Commonly Used Prefixes: –kilo = 1000 of something ( 1km= 1000m, kg) –deci =0.1 of something (10 dm = 1m) –centi = 0.01 of something (100 cm = 1m) –milli = 0.001 of something (10 3 mm = 1m) –micro = 0.000001 (10 6 µm = 1m) –nano = 0.000000001 (10 9 nm = 1m) –pico = 0.000000000001 (10 12 pm = 1m) Refer to Conversion Chart to additional prefixes

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All conversion factors are fractions. Conversion 100 cm 1 m 100 cm 1m 10 -6 µm == 1 = 1m 10 -6 µm 1 km 10 3 m == 1 10 3 m

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Units are multiplied and divided like numbers are. The Nature of Units 10 meters 2 meters = 5 (the units cancel out) 50 miles 10 gallons = 5 miles/gallon (the units combine as a fraction) 10 meters x 10 meters x 10 meters = 10 3 m 3 (the units combine as exponents) Only IDENTICAL UNITS on 2 numbers can be added or subtracted. The answer always has the same units. 100 kg – 25 kg = 75 kg 100 kg – 25 m = Meaningless Dribble

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How many seconds are in 54 days? Write the measurement with its unit. If it isn’t already a fraction, write it over 1. Set up conversion factors that –Cancel units you want to get rid of –Replace with units you are looking for –Have values on the top and bottom that are equivalent Multiply numbers across the top Multiply numbers across the bottom Divide to get answer, check units

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Scientific Notation 10000000000000000000000 0.00000000000000000000000000001 There has to be a better way to write those numbers Rules for scientific notation –1) Always express the number starting with the one’s place followed by any decimal digits, times a power of 10. –2)To express a large number, count the number of decimal places needed to move to the one’splace, and make that number the exponent of ten. –3) To express a very small number, count the number of decimal places needed to move to the one’s place, and make that number the NEGATIVE exponent of ten. –4) After re-expressing the number in scientific notation, check it by writing out the expanded ten, and multiply it by the measured number.

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Scientific Notation Examples: 0.000000000000000000000000000000001 = 1.0 x 10 -35 94140000000000000000000000000000000 = 9.414 x 10 35

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20 Accuracy – how close a measurement is to the true value Precision – how close a set of measurements are to each other accurate & precise but not accurate & not precise

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Precise if they give many significant digits Accurate if calibrated to a standard

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To report the accuracy of your measurements Observed – True True X 100

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To report the precision of your measurements 1 2 3 Average your measurements Find the absolute values of the differences between each measurement and the average Average these differences

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Stating a Problem Collecting Observations Scientific Methods

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Searching for Scientific Laws Forming Hypotheses Forming Theories Modifying Theories

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PROBLEM SOLVING Identify Question Draw a Picture or Model Identify Knowns List Useful Formulas and Equalities Convert Units to Match Each Other Use Formulas to Find Unknowns Until you reach the answer to your question

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