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Special Senses Eyes Dr. M. Diamond.

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Presentation on theme: "Special Senses Eyes Dr. M. Diamond."— Presentation transcript:

1 Special Senses Eyes Dr. M. Diamond

2 The Eye and Vision 70% of all sensory receptors are in the eyes
Each eye has over a million nerve fibers Protection for the eye Most of the eye is enclosed in a bony orbit A cushion of fat surrounds most of the eye Accessory Structures of the Eye Eyelids and eyelashes Conjunctiva Lacrimal apparatus Extrinsic eye muscles

3 Accessory structures Conjunctiva Lacrimal apparatus
Membrane that lines the eyelids Connects to the surface of the eye Secretes mucus to lubricate the eye Lacrimal apparatus Lacrimal gland—produces lacrimal fluid Lacrimal canals—drain lacrimal fluid from eyes Lacrimal sac—provides passage of lacrimal fluid towards nasal cavity Nasolacrimal duct—empties lacrimal fluid into the nasal cavity Properties of lacrimal fluid Protects, moistens, and lubricates the eye Dilute salt solution (tears) Contains antibodies and lysozyme

4 Accessory structures of the eye

5 Accessory structures

6 Structure Layers forming the wall of the eyeball
Fibrous layer Outside layer Sclera White connective tissue layer Seen anteriorly as the “white of the eye” Cornea Transparent, central anterior portion Allows for light to pass through Repairs itself easily The only human tissue that can be transplanted without fear of rejection Vascular layer Middle layer Choroid is a blood-rich nutritive layer in the posterior of the eye Pigment prevents light from scattering Modified anteriorly into two structures Ciliary body—smooth muscle attached to lens Iris—regulates amount of light entering eye Pigmented layer that gives eye color Pupil—rounded opening in the iris

7 Structure Layers forming the wall of the eyeball
Sensory layer Inside layer Retina contains two layers Outer pigmented layer Inner neural layer Contains receptor cells (photoreceptors) Rods Cones Signals pass from photoreceptors via a two-neuron chain Bipolar neurons Ganglion cells Signals leave the retina toward the brain through the optic nerve Optic disc (blind spot) is where the optic nerve leaves the eyeball Cannot see images focused on the optic disc

8 Structure

9 Rods and cones Rods Cones
Most are found towards the edges of the retina Allow dim light vision and peripheral vision All perception is in gray tones Cones Allow for detailed color vision Densest in the center of the retina Fovea centralis—area of the retina with only cones No photoreceptor cells are at the optic disc, or blind spot

10 Neurons of the retina and vision
Rods Cones Three types – sensitive to different light wavelengths (and therefore colors)

11 Lens Biconvex crystal-like structure
Held in place by a suspensory ligament attached to the ciliary body Cataracts result when the lens becomes hard and opaque with age Vision becomes hazy and distorted Eventually causes blindness in affected eye

12 Eye chambers Anterior (aqueous) segment Posterior (vitreous) segment
Anterior to the lens Contains aqueous humor Watery fluid found between lens and cornea Similar to blood plasma Helps maintain intraocular pressure Provides nutrients for the lens and cornea Reabsorbed into venous blood through the scleral venous sinus, or canal of Schlemm Posterior (vitreous) segment Posterior to the lens Contains vitreous humor Gel-like substance posterior to the lens Prevents the eye from collapsing Helps maintain intraocular pressure

13 Focusing Light must be focused to a point on the retina for optimal vision The eye is set for distance vision (over 20 feet away) Accommodation—the lens must change shape to focus on closer objects (less than 20 feet away)

14 Visual fields and pathways
Optic chiasma Location where the optic nerves cross Fibers from the medial side of each eye cross over to the opposite side of the brain Optic tracts Contain fibers from the lateral side of the eye on the same side and the medial side of the opposite eye

15 Anatomical irregularities
Myopia (nearsighted) Distant objects appear blurry Light from those objects fails to reach the retina and are focused in front of it Results from an eyeball that is too long Hyperopia (farsighted) Near objects are blurry while distant objects are clear Distant objects are focused behind the retina Results from an eyeball that is too short or from a “lazy lens” Astigmatism Images are blurry Results from light focusing as lines, not points, on the retina due to unequal curvatures of the cornea or lens

16 Eye ‘floaters’ and ‘spots’
Age-related Cause – degeneration of vitreous humor Pieces of undissolved vitreous gel float around

17 Retinal detachment Retinal tear – may be caused by
Vitreous humor pulling away Blow to the eye Vitreous humor leaks behind retina causing detachment May result in blindness unless treated immediately More common in mid-life or later Conditions that increase chances include: nearsightedness, glaucoma, trauma, previous cataract surgery, family history, tear in other eye Symptoms Floaters, flashes ‘Gray curtain’ Treatment Laser cauterization Cryotherapy

18 Glaucoma “Vision going gray” Pressure in eye builds
Cause – blockage of aqueous humor drainage Result – blindness; retina and optic nerve damages Initially asymptomatic Later – halos, blurred vision, headaches Easily tested – testing should be done yearly over age 40

19 Macular Degeneration Macula Age-related Dry Wet
the part of the retina responsible for sharp central vision Fovea is at the center Age-related Dry aging and thinning of macula More common (90%) Wet New blood vessels grow beneath retina Leak blood and fluid Results in loss of central vision

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