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Deaf History Post-1817 ASL 305, Introduction to Deaf Studies

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1 Deaf History Post-1817 ASL 305, Introduction to Deaf Studies
University of Washington April 2, 2008 Lance Forshay

2 Deaf History, 19th Century
Jean Massieu, first Deaf teacher at Royal Academy for the Deaf, Paris, France Laurent Clerc, Jean’s student grew up and became school’s second Deaf teacher.

3 Deaf History, 19th Century
Thomas Gallaudet saw the need of education for deaf children. He went to Europe and brought Laurent Clerc, a deaf teacher from deaf school in Paris, to America to start a deaf school together in 1817.

4 Deaf History, 19th Century
Laurent Clerc learned the old ASL used by deaf people in America and combined it with LSF (French Sign Language). Eventually, he standardized the sign system at the school into modern ASL as we know it today.

5 Spread of Deaf Schools in America
1817- American School for the Deaf, Conn. 1818- New York Institution for the Instruction of the Deaf and Dumb. 1820- Pennsylvania School for the deaf. 1823- Kentucky School for the Deaf. First school supported by the state. 1839- Virginia School for the Deaf and Blind. First school to integrate deaf and blind students. 1864- First National Deaf Mute College, now called Gallaudet University in Washington DC. Chartered by Abraham Lincoln. Later on, almost every state have school for the deaf…

6 Golden Age of Deaf People…
Many Deaf schools across the country were founded by Deaf superindents. Many Deaf people accomplished many things in spite of high level discrimination against deaf people in the past American society. Teachers Authors Scientists Farmer Business owners Professional athletes

7 Deaf History, 19th Century
Alexander Graham Bell and the spread of Oralism took a strong grip on deaf education in American and all over the world in 1880’s. 1880,the World Congress of the Educators of the Deaf met in Milan, Italy and passed a resolution to promote Oralism in deaf education all over the world and dismiss all deaf teachers out of deaf schools. Germany’s influence on France.

8 Deaf History, 19th Century
At the same year, National Association for the Deaf was founded and they fought long and hard for the rights to use sign language in deaf community and education. By 1910, most schools for the Deaf in America turned to Oralism. NAD establishes Moving Picture Committee to preserve sign language. George Veditz, Deaf activist, led the fight for equality rights to work, drive and marry.

9 Deaf History, 20th Century
1900’s ’s Oralism method proved failure in deaf education. Average deaf high school graduates ranks third grade in English. Many Deaf culture historians called this period a dark age of deaf education. Sign language was preserved in Deaf Clubs during this period. Rental movie from NAD at clubs.

10 Deaf History, 19th Century
1960’s William Stokoe, a non-conventional linguist, who taught English at Gallaudet, recognized linguistic characters in ASL and started to have a deep interest to do research on sign. He eventually proved that ASL is a language. He published his finding. 1970’s, Sign Language Studies, Classes, Training, and Book materials began to emerge. Deaf culture recognized and defined with ASL.

11 Deaf History, 20th Century
1975, Sign Instructors Guidance Network. Today it is called ASL Teacher Association. 1970’s, Sign language slowly returns to deaf education but in Englishized forms. 1975, PL , gave disabled children rights to be in public schools. Increase mainstreaming. 1988, Deaf President Now. First Deaf college president. 1989, Deaf Way International I 1990, ASL accepted as a foreign language credit and legalized in many states. Explosive growth. 1990, Americans with Disability Act

12 Deaf History, 21st Century
2000’s, Oralism’s resurgence with different name, “Audial / Verbal Therapy”. More powerful with modern hearing technology like Cochlear Implants. 2002, Deaf Way International II 2006, Unity for Gallaudet (UFG), Second Protest at Gallaudet University. Many changes eventually with ASL policy and bi-lingual education. 2007, Deaf Bilingual Coalition founded. 2010, Deafhood Foundation 2010, International Congress of Educators for the Deaf conference in Vancouver. General Apology from their board for 1880 incidence?

13 Resources Eriksson, Per, The History of Deaf People: A Source Book. (Translated from Swedish) Sweden: SIH Laromedel, National Swedish Agency for Special Education, 1993. Gannon, Jack, Deaf Heritage. National Association of the Deaf, 1980.

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