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Summing up What now?. What is science? Explanations of the material world Based on observation and testing of theories against nature (facts, hypotheses,

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Presentation on theme: "Summing up What now?. What is science? Explanations of the material world Based on observation and testing of theories against nature (facts, hypotheses,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Summing up What now?

2 What is science? Explanations of the material world Based on observation and testing of theories against nature (facts, hypotheses, laws, theories) Importance historically Importance in a modern society

3 Why Science? water climate food energy health


5 Why does science matter? Science for all – Scientific literacy important in a democracy Science for future scientists – Important for EU – economic growth, competition, prosperity

6 What is the Nature of Science? NOS Nature of Science (NOS) refers to the epistemology of science, science as a way of knowing, or the values and beliefs inherent to the development of scientific knowledge (Lederman, 1992). The nature of scientific knowledge is a more suitable way to discuss this topic General assumption that understanding NOS is important in science teaching and learning

7 NOS Scientific knowledge is simultaneously reliable and tentative. Having confidence in scientific knowledge is reasonable while realizing that such knowledge may be abandoned or modified in light of new evidence or re-conceptualization of prior evidence and knowledge. Although no single universal step-by-step scientific method captures the complexity of doing science, a number of shared values and perspectives characterize a scientific approach to understanding nature. Among these are a demand for naturalistic explanations supported by empirical evidence that are, at least in principle, testable against the natural world. Other shared elements include observations, rational argument, inference, skepticism, peer review and replicability of work.

8 NOS Creativity is a vital, yet personal, ingredient in the production of scientific knowledge. Science, by definition, is limited to naturalistic methods and explanations and, as such, is precluded from using supernatural elements in the production of scientific knowledge. A primary goal of science is the formation of theories and laws, which are terms with very specific meanings.

9 NOS Contributions to science can be made and have been made by people the world over. The scientific questions asked, the observations made, and the conclusions in science are to some extent influenced by the existing state of scientific knowledge, the social and cultural context of the researcher and the observer's experiences and expectations. The history of science reveals both evolutionary and revolutionary changes. With new evidence and interpretation, old ideas are replaced or supplemented by newer ones.

10 How does the nature of science (NOS) relate to scientific inquiry? Inquiry is what drives the scientific endeavor and is a process of discovery. It begins with the formation of questions that are testable, scientific investigations allow scientists to collect evidence, explanations are made based on the evidence and finally results are communicated to peers.

11 How is scientific inquiry related to teaching science in schools? Inquiry based science teaching (IBST) has it roots in curriculum development projects characteristic of the post sputnik era. The central idea is of course to use elements of inquiry in science teaching that are also present in scientific inquiry.

12 Science as Inquiry Bybee describes science as inquiry as comprising three main elements: 1. Skills of scientific inquiry (what students should be able to do) 2. Knowledge about scientific inquiry (what students should understand about the nature of scientific inquiry 3. A pedagogical approach for teaching science content

13 Inquiry Based Science Inquiry is the intentional process of diagnosing problems, critiquing experiments, and distinguishing alternatives, planning investigations, researching conjectures, searching for information, constructing models, debatng with peers and forming coherent arguments. Linn, Davis and Bell, 2004

14 Inquiry Based Science is characterized by: Authentic and problem based learning activities where there may not be a correct answer A certain amount of experimental procedures, “hands-on” activities Self regulated learning sequences where student autonomy is emphasized Discursive argumentation and communication with peers (talking science)

15 Describing Scientific Literacy Scientific processes, Scientific method, Experimental approach, Problem solving, Conceiving problems, Formulating hypotheses, Designing experiments, Gathering and analyzing data, Drawing conclusions, Deriving conceptual understandings, Examining the limitations of scientific explanations, Methodological strategies, Knowledge as “temporary truths”, Practical work, Finding and exploring questions, Independent thinking, Creative inventing abilities, Hands-on activities




19 From and emphasis on individual science lessons that demonstrate concepts to science lesson sequences that promote reasoning with and about concepts From the study of science topics that examine current scientific thinking without regard for social context to the study of science topics in social contexts From a view of science that emphasizes observation and experimentation to a view that stresses theory and model building and revision Duschl

20 Teacher Professional Development Cognitive dissonance is created, which disturbs the existing equilibrium between the practices and beliefs of teachers and their experiences with the subject matter, learning and teaching. Discussion, reading, writing and revised thinking can lead to resolution of such dissonance when teachers are given the appropriate context, time and support The professional development experiences are connected to the teachers’ particular context and their own students A means is provided for the teachers to develop new classroom practices that are consistent with the new understandings they are developing As new issues and problems arise, teachers are given the support needed to understand them and put these new understandings into classroom practice Thompson & Zeuli, 1999

21 The Inquiry Continuum Confirmation Inquiry – The question and procedure are provided, results are known in advance. Structured Inquiry – The question and procedure are provided, students generate an explanation supported by the evidence they collect

22 The Inquiry Continuum 2 Guided Inquiry – The teacher provides the research question, students design the procedure Open Inquiry – Students ask questions, design procedures, carry out investigations and communicate results

23 5E model Engaging Exploring Explaining Elaborating Evaluating

24 Engaging (Teacher) Creates interest Generates curiosity Raises questions Elicits responses uncovering what students are thinking Explains concepts Provides definitions and answers States conclusions Provides closure lectures

25 Engaging (Student) Asks questions such as, Why did this happen? What can I find out about this? What do I already know about this? Asks for the correct answer Seeks one solution

26 Explore (teacher) Students working together without direct instruction Observes and listens to student interaction Asks probing questions to help students Allows students time to think through problems Acts as a consultant Provides answers Tells or explains how to work on problems Provides closure Tells students they are wrong Provides facts to solve problems Leads step by step to solutions

27 Explore (student) Thinks freely but within limits of the activity Forms new predictions and hypotheses Tries alternatives and discusses them with others Records observations and ideas Lets others do the thinking (passive) Works quietly with no involvement Plays around with no goal in mind

28 Explain (teacher) Encourages students to explain in own words Asks for justification (evidence) and clarification Uses students’ previous experiences as basis for explaining concepts Accepts explanations that have no justification Neglects to solicit students’ explanations

29 Explain (student) Explains possible solutions or answers to others Listens critically to other explanations Refers to previous activities Uses recorded observations in explanations Proposes explanations from thin air with no relationship to previous experiences Beings up irrelevant experiences and examples Accepts explanations without justification


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