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Chapter 16 “The Civil War Begins” 1861 – 1862

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1 Chapter 16 “The Civil War Begins” 1861 – 1862
16.1 The War Erupts Pages 481 – 487

2 Key Ideas in 16.1 When the Confederates fired on Fort Sumter, Lincoln calls for Union troops. The border states (Kentucky, Tennessee, Missouri, West Virginia, Maryland, and Delaware) were of crucial importance and remained in the Union. The South plans for a defensive strategy, while the North takes the offensive, blockading Southern ports.

3 First Shots at Fort Sumter
The Confederacy took over most federal forts within it’s borders after the seceded from the Union. Lincoln told the Confederacy that he planned to restock Fort Sumter. The Confederates decided to attack before the shipment arrived Major Robert Anderson (U) was forced to surrender to the Confederates. The battle at Fort Sumter marked the beginning of the Civil War on 4:30am

4 Lincoln Calls Out the Militia
Lincoln believes that the rebellion would be short lived. He asked for 75,000 militiamen to serve for 90 days to put down the Confederates. As more southern states seceded from the Union, northerners responded with additional enlistments. Robert E. Lee, a talented (VA) military officers choose his birthplace over serving for the Union.

5 Choosing Sides in Yellow
After Virginia joined the Confederacy the other border states had to choose a side.  Delaware, Maryland and Kentucky were free states and their location could influence the outcome of the war. :- o If Maryland, seceded then Washington, D.C. would have been cut off from the Union.  Pro-Union leaders gained control of the MD congress keeping Maryland in the Union.  Kentucky had important rivers and could provide an water route invasion into the South.  The Confederates invaded Kentucky which made them loyal to the Union.  Missouri and Delaware stayed in the Union and a western portion of Virginia broke away from the Confederacy with the support of federal (U) troops.  This region became known as West Virginia.

6 Strengths and Weaknesses
UNION = US CONFEDERACY= SOUTH More manufacturing and trade Labor and resources More people Use of railroads, canals, and roads Naval power Leadership w/ President Lincoln General Robert E. Lee was a well respected & recruited by both the Union and the Confederacy. Defensive strategy – bring the fight to the South The planned to stretch out Union supply lines Home field advantage

7 The Confederate Strategy
Defensive strategy – bring the fight to the South President Jefferson Davis hoped the Union would give up. Economic Strategy – “King Cotton” The South withheld cotton from Britain and France. Southerners believed that Britain and France would aid the Confederacy. Europeans had saved cotton from the last harvest and refused remained neutral. Over time the Confederacy moved to a more offensive attack to ruin Northern morale .

8 Union Strategy Offensive Strategy – “Anaconda Plan”
Smother the South’s economy and squeeze them back into the Union Set up a naval blockades. Control the Mississippi River dividing the South into two. This was a slow motion strategy that would take a lot of time. Lincoln orders an invasion on Virginia in the summer of 1861.

9 Battle of Bull Run The Union would have to conquer the city of Manassas, VA in order to get the Richmond. The Battle took place on 07/21/1861. The Union led by General Irwin McDowell The Confederates were lead by General Pierre Beauregard. The south charged the Union with their “rebel yell” and had fresh reinforcements. The southerners were thrilled with their victory and Northerners realized that they had underestimated their opponent. Lincoln asked for 500,000 troops to make a 3 year commitment to serve in the Union army.

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