Presentation on theme: "Chapter 16 “The Civil War Begins” 1861 – 1862"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 16 “The Civil War Begins” 1861 – 1862 16.1 The War EruptsPages 481 – 487
2 Key Ideas in 16.1When the Confederates fired on Fort Sumter, Lincoln calls for Union troops.The border states (Kentucky, Tennessee, Missouri, West Virginia, Maryland, and Delaware) were of crucial importance and remained in the Union.The South plans for a defensive strategy, while the North takes the offensive, blockading Southern ports.
3 First Shots at Fort Sumter The Confederacy took over most federal forts within it’s borders after the seceded from the Union.Lincoln told the Confederacy that he planned to restock Fort Sumter.The Confederates decided to attack before the shipment arrivedMajor Robert Anderson (U) was forced to surrender to the Confederates.The battle at Fort Sumter marked the beginning of the Civil War on 4:30am
4 Lincoln Calls Out the Militia Lincoln believes that the rebellion would be short lived.He asked for 75,000 militiamen to serve for 90 days to put down the Confederates.As more southern states seceded from the Union, northerners responded with additional enlistments.Robert E. Lee, a talented (VA) military officers choose his birthplace over serving for the Union.
5 Choosing Sides in Yellow After Virginia joined the Confederacy the other border states had to choose a side. Delaware, Maryland and Kentucky were free states and their location could influence the outcome of the war. :- oIf Maryland, seceded then Washington, D.C. would have been cut off from the Union. Pro-Union leaders gained control of the MD congress keeping Maryland in the Union. Kentucky had important rivers and could provide an water route invasion into the South. The Confederates invaded Kentucky which made them loyal to the Union. Missouri and Delaware stayed in the Union and a western portion of Virginia broke away from the Confederacy with the support of federal (U) troops. This region became known as West Virginia.
6 Strengths and Weaknesses UNION = USCONFEDERACY= SOUTHMore manufacturing and tradeLabor and resourcesMore peopleUse of railroads, canals, and roadsNaval powerLeadership w/ President LincolnGeneral Robert E. Lee was a well respected &recruited by boththe Union and theConfederacy.Defensive strategy – bring the fight to the SouthThe planned to stretch out Union supply linesHome field advantage
7 The Confederate Strategy Defensive strategy – bring the fight to the SouthPresident Jefferson Davis hoped the Union would give up.Economic Strategy – “King Cotton”The South withheld cotton from Britain and France.Southerners believed that Britain and France would aid the Confederacy.Europeans had saved cotton from the last harvest and refused remained neutral.Over time the Confederacy moved toa more offensive attack to ruin Northernmorale .
8 Union Strategy Offensive Strategy – “Anaconda Plan” Smother the South’s economy and squeeze them back into the UnionSet up a naval blockades.Control the Mississippi River dividing the South into two.This was a slow motion strategy that would take a lot of time.Lincoln orders an invasion on Virginia in the summer of 1861.
9 Battle of Bull RunThe Union would have to conquer the city of Manassas, VA in order to get the Richmond.The Battle took place on 07/21/1861.The Union led by General Irwin McDowellThe Confederates were lead by General Pierre Beauregard.The south charged the Union with their “rebel yell” and had fresh reinforcements.The southerners were thrilled with their victory and Northerners realized that they had underestimated their opponent.Lincoln asked for 500,000 troops to make a 3 year commitment to serve in the Union army.