Presentation on theme: "THE QIN DYNASTY 221 BCE – 206 BCE"— Presentation transcript:
1 THE QIN DYNASTY 221 BCE – 206 BCE Administrative InstitutionsProjection of Military PowerSuccess through trade and economic integrationSocial StructureLabor SystemsRole of patriarchyReasons for decline
2 Setting the Stage: The Qin Previous rulers: Zhou DynastyZhou ruled from 1027 BCE to 256 BCE.“Warring States” period: 475 BCE-221BCE.Feudal society… the Qin would emerge and unify China.
4 The First EmperorQin Shihuangdi (r BCE) founds new dynasty as “First Emperor”Dynasty ends in 207, but sets dramatic precedentBasis of rule: centralized bureaucracyMassive public works begunPrecursor to Great Wall
6 In order to organize their subjects, rulers created “administrative institutions”. Centralized GovernmentAbolishes old “feudal states” and divides China into 36 military districts, each ruled by appointed officials.Use of inspectors (spies) to keep local officials in check.Shi Huangdi forces all “noble families” to live in the capital in Xianyang.Nobles land was divided up amongst the peasants who had to pay very high taxes.
7 LEGALISM Shi Huangdi adopts Legalism as his primary ruling philospohy. Read “Memorandum on the Burning of Books” p.80 in the Duiker book.Discuss the questions with your group members.
8 Imperial governments projected “military power” over larger areas. Example: The Great WallNeeded to prevent raids from nomads to the North.What did the “Great Wall” say to outsiders?Also builds numerous roads and canals to help improve transportation.
10 Building of roads, bridges Promotion of trade and economic integration help promote the success of empires.Standardized:LawsCurrenciesWeights and measuresScriptPreviously: single language written in distinct scriptsBuilding of roads, bridgesGovernment Monopolies: mining, wine making, and salt distribution.Private commerce heavily taxed.
11 Hierarchical “social structures” The EmperorLandlords (ruled over the 36 military districts)MerchantsPeasants
12 “Labor Systems” were used to for food production, public works projects, and to reward the elites. Forced labor used for most projects such as the Great Wall and “Terra Cotta” soldiers. Peasants were required to serve months at a time.While peasants did receive land from the new emperor, they were taxed heavily.
14 Patriarchal RuleFamily roles similar to those found in other early civilizations.Emphasis on unity and the power of the husband and father.Women had clearly defined roles. Generally were subordinate.Women could and did exercise influence behind the scenes.
15 REASONS FOR THE DECLINE OF THE QIN Attacks on intellectuals.Heavy tax burden placed on the peasants to fund military conquests and public projects.Brutal ruleEXAMPLES: 476 scholars buried alive, book burnings….