8 In all these transfers, energy is conserved. Suggest the energy transfer for the devices below:chemical to heat and lightsound to electricalelectrical to sound and heatelectrical to sound and light and heatelastic to kinetic and heatchemical to sound and microwaves(EM radiation) and heatchemical to kinetic & sound & heatA match burningA portable torchA microphoneA radioA TVA catapultA mobile phoneA carClick for answersIn all these transfers, energy is conserved.Energy cannot be destroyed or created.
9 What about fuel? A fuel is something that can release heat energy This energy can then be turned into other types of energy!Many fuels contain a store of chemical energyCan you think of any examples?
10 Burning fuels Burning an fuel doesn’t make any energy? So what does it do?Use a kettle to show energy change
11 Fossil FuelsGuess where fossil fuels come from???FOSSILS
12 Why do we need to try and reduce our dependence on fossil fuels?
13 Non-renewable energy Fossil fuels are non-renewable Renewable energy is on the rise
14 Non-renewable energy sources OilCoalNatural gasOil, coal and natural gas are examples of fossil fuels. They were formed from biological deposits over the course of millions of years.There is a finite amount of these materials on the Earth so they will run out eventually.Once they are used up they cannot be regenerated and used again.
15 Renewable energy sources These will not run out because they can easily be regenerated.Examples are wind power, solar power, tidal power and biomass.Only 1% of the UK’s energy comes from these sources.Can you think of a reason why?
16 Energy The Sun The original source of most energy resources. Plants store the sun’s energythrough photosynthesis.The energy is nowCHEMICAL energy.
18 The Sun Natural gas Oil The original source of most energy Coal resources.CoalbiomassfoodWindwaves
19 How coal was formedAbout 300 million years ago, plants photosynthesized and stored the Sun’s energy.CoalDead plants fell into swampy water and the mud stopped them from rotting away.Over the years, the mud piled up and squashed the plants.After millions of years under this pressure, the mud became rock and the plants became coal.
21 How oil was formedOil is also biological in origin. Millions of years ago tiny animals lived in the sea. Like now their ecosystem was dependent on heat and light from the Sun and photosynthesis by plants. When they died they fell into mud and sand at the bottom of the sea but didn’t rot away.Over millions of years, they got buried deeper by the mud and sand. The temperature and pressure (caused by the weight of the sediments and deep burial) changed the mud and sand into rock and the dead animals into crude oil and natural gas.This sample of crude oil was formed in Southern England. Crude oil formed in other parts of the world can be very different in appearance and viscosity.
24 Renewable vs Non-renewable AdvantagesDisadvantages
25 CoalCoal is as a solid fuel used to produce electricity and heat through combustion. World coal consumption was about 6.75 billion tons in 2006 and is expected to increase 48% to 9.98 billion tons by 2030. Coal is sometimes used in the home for heating but produces lots of soot. Coal is a non-renewable fuel.No one knows for sure how much coal is left for sure but we do know there are at least 147 years worth of coal left.
26 Crude oilCrude oil is used to make petrol, diesel, plastics and all sorts of other products.Its made from lots of tiny animals that lived millions of years ago. That’s quite a while!Crude oil products can be used as heating oil in some peoples houses or to generate electricity in power stations!It is believed that there is only enough crude oil left to supply us for another 130 years.
27 Uranium Uranium is a metal that can be used to produce power when it breaks down in a nuclear reaction.A single cup of uranium can provide enough energy to keep your 55inch widescreen and xbox on playing continuously for 50 years!We think that there is at least 85 years left of uranium deposits however it is possible there might be more.Another problem that you need to worry about is what you do with the leftovers. Used uranium is very radioactive which is dangerous for living organisms and has to be stored underground forever!
28 Geothermal Geothermal energy uses the heat deep underground to heat water toreally high temperatures so that itcan power a turbine.Only some areas of the world have enough heat in deep underground to support geothermal energy in some areasNewcastle city centre is exploring using water at 80 degrees to heat peoples houses. This is extremely cheap and completely renewable.
29 Solar and Wind power Solar and wind power are both renewable energy resources. This meansthat they are naturally replenished.Solar panels however rely on it being day time and bright. Many people are investing in these for on top of their houses.Wind turbines rely on the wind blowing and can be noisy, but can allow people to generate their own electricity.This means that these sources are sometimes unreliable but governments around the world are investing in them as a good source of energy.
30 Biomass as heating and as electricity Biomass is biological material from living, or recently living organisms. As an energy source, biomass can either be used directly, or converted into other energy products such as biofuel.Biomass can be used to generate electricity with steam turbines by combustion. Examples include forest wood (such as dead trees, branches and tree stumps), garden clippings, wood chips and even some waste you throw in the bin.Biomass can also be used directly as a fuel for cooking such as in India where farmers use manure to cook their food.