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Verification of OHM’s law By: Engr.Irshad Rahim Memon

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Objective of this practical is to verify that voltage applied to a closed resistive path is equal to the product of current flowing through and resistance of that path

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Few resistors bread board multimeter variable DC power supply connecting wires etc

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Ohm’s law states that current through a closed resistive path is directly proportional to applied voltage, where resistance of path is kept constant. Ohm experimentally determined that if the voltage across resistor is increased, current through resistor will also increase as shown in figure 01.

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Figure 01: Ohm law for constant resistance (a) less voltage, less current (b) more voltage, more current

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Ohm also determined if voltage is kept constant then less resistance results in more current and more resistance results in less current as shown in figure 02

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Figure 02: Ohm law for constant voltage (a) less resistance, more current (b) more resistance, less current

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Ohm also determined if voltage is kept constant then less resistance results in more current and more resistance results in less current as shown in figure 02.

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Ohm’s law can be formulated as follows:

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Connect a variable voltage source, a resistor and an ammeter in series as shown in figure 03(a) to verify direct relationship between voltage and current as shown in figure 03(c)

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Verification of Ohm’s law for constant resistance (a) circuit (b) different values of current for different values of voltage (c) graphical relation between voltage and current

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Also connect a variable resistor, a voltage source and an ammeter in series as shown in figure 04(a) to verify inverse relationship between resistance and current as shown in figure 04(c)

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It is observed that current varies directly with applied voltage where resistance is kept constant. It is also observed that current varies inversely with resistance where applied voltage is kept constant.

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Fill the missing quantity in the table 01 with the help of Ohm’s law. S.No R (Ohm) I (Ampere) V (volt) Example1K22K 15M100 2 50 30.05 m1

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Verification of Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law (KVL) By: Engr.Irshad Rahim Memon

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Objective of this practical is to verify KVL.

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Few resistors bread board multimeter variable DC power supply connecting wires etc

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Kirchhoff’s voltage law states that “sum of all the voltage drops around a single closed path in a circuit is equal to the total source voltage in that loop” or it can also be defined as “The algebraic sum of all the voltages (both source and drop) around a single closed path is equal to zero” as shown in figure 01.

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Figure 01: Demonstration of KVL

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KVL may be formulated as follows. Vs=V1+V2+V3+…+Vn or Vs-V1-V2-V3-…-Vn=0

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For the verification of KVL, a simple series resistive circuit like shown in figure 01 should be prepared.

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KVL is verified KVL law is verified for series circuit of three resistors of known values connected in series. Results are given in table 01.

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S.No Vs V R1 V R2 V R3 V s= V R1 +V R2 +V R3 example10Volt2 Volt3 Volt5 Volt10 Volt=2+3+5 Volt 15Volt 215volt 320volt

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Verification of Kirchhoff’s Current Law (KCL) By: Engr.Irshad Rahim Memon

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Objective of this practical is to verify KCL.

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Few resistors bread board multimeter variable DC power supply connecting wires etc

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Kirchhoff’s current law states that “Algebraic sum of all currents entering and leaving a node is equal to zero” as demonstrated in figure 01.

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Figure 01: Demonstration of KCL

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For the verification of KCL, a simple parallel resistive circuit like shown in figure 02 should be prepared.

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Figure 02: Verification of KCL

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KCL law is verified for parallel circuit of three resistors of known values connected in parallel. Results are given in table 01.

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S.No I total I R1 I R2 I R3 I total = I R1 +I R2 +I R3 example1Amp1Amp0.5 Amp0.3 Amp0.2 Amp1Amp=0.5+0.3+0.2 Amp 10.5 Amp 20.25 Amp0.25 Amp 30.1 Amp

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