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By Karan Oberoi.  A directory service (DS) is a software application- or a set of applications - that stores and organizes information about a computer.

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Presentation on theme: "By Karan Oberoi.  A directory service (DS) is a software application- or a set of applications - that stores and organizes information about a computer."— Presentation transcript:

1 By Karan Oberoi

2  A directory service (DS) is a software application- or a set of applications - that stores and organizes information about a computer network's users and network resources.  Allows network administrators to manage users' access to the resources  Act as an abstraction layer between users and shared resources

3  Provide file shares.  Authenticate users  Provide services, such as Email, Access to the internet, Print services etc.  Control access to services and shares.

4 Active Directory is Microsoft’s version of an LDAP based network directory service. »Active Directory allows administrators to define, arrange and manage objects, such as user data, printers and servers, so they are available to users and applications throughout the organization.

5  Microsoft’s directory service which is included in the Windows 2000 and Windows Server 2003 operating system versions.  Is an implementation of LDAP directory services.  Called: ADS,NTDS  Goals and Benefits  Open Standards  High Scalability  Simplified Administration

6 Hierarchical Hierarchical Base object Domain Base object Domain OU Domain OU Objects Domain Tree Domain Tree Forest

7  „old Friends “  User  Group  Computer  New Elements  Distribution Lists  System Policies  Application defined custom objects  Described in the Schema

8 Definition of all AD Definition of all AD Object-Types (Classes) Object-Types (Classes) Attributes Attributes Data-Types (Syntaxes) Data-Types (Syntaxes) Can be compared to a Database Schema Can be compared to a Database Schema ONE consistent Schema inside a single Forest ONE consistent Schema inside a single Forest Extensible Extensible

9  AD Base Element (Building Block)  NT 4 Compatible  Physically Implemented on Domain Controllers (DC)  Border for - Replication Traffic - Replication Traffic - System Policies - System Policies - Administration - Administration

10 LA Admin New York SalesAdminSales  Implements a Structure inside a Domain  Can be nested as needed  Can not be assigned any rights  Typically used for Administrative Reasons e.g. System Policies

11  Hierarchical Domain Structure inside a single Namespace - - - - - -  Transitive Trusts created automatically  Sub-Domain must be added to Root-Domain – otherwise there will be no tree Tree

12  Combination of Trees  Disjunct Namespaces - -  Transitive Trusts created automatically  There is one single tree-root!  Sub-Tree must be added to Root-Tree, otherwise no Forest will be created

13  Site: A site is a physical location, or LAN. This is different from a web site, which is an organization’s internet presence.  Domain : - A sub-network comprised of a group of clients and servers under the control of one security database. Dividing LANs into domains improves performance and security. - All resources under the control of a single computer system.

14  Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) -- a protocol used to access a directory service.  Lightweight Access Directory Protocol is the primary access protocol for Active Directory.

15  The global catalog is the mechanism that tracks all of the objects managed across the network, across all domains within the organization.  Elements of the catalog are replicated across all of the domain controllers within all domains across the org.

16  For Active Directory to function properly, DNS servers must support Service Location (SRV) resource records.  SRV resource records map the name of a service to the name of a server offering that service. Active Directory clients and domain controllers use SRV resource records to determine the IP addresses of domain controllers.

17  Active Directory replicates its administration information across domain controllers throughout the “forest” utilizing a “multi-master” approach.  Multi-master replication among peer domain controllers is impractical for some types changes, so only one domain controller, called the operations master, accepts requests for such changes.

18  Each domain controller has information for the entire forest to support authentication and access control.  This provides the ability for local domain controllers (the “tree”) to provide a quick local lookup of authority.  Not just users but every object authenticating to Active Directory must reference the global catalog server, including every computer that boots up

19  Stores a physical Copy of the Active Directory Database - Currently a single Domain per DC supported! - Currently a single Domain per DC supported! - ESE95 Database (MS Exchange) - ESE95 Database (MS Exchange)  Logon Services - Kerberos - Kerberos - LAN Manager Authentication - LAN Manager Authentication  Its always recommended to have at least 2 Domain Controllers!

20  Updates can be applied to ANY Domain Controller  Will be Replicated to each other Domain Controls (inside that Domain) within 15 Minutes  Optimized Algorithm reduces Replication Traffic  Not time based (triggered on demand, only)!

21  All Domain Databases involved  Changes are transmitted compressed  via IP (RPC) or SMTP -SMTP not within a single domain! -SMTP not within a single domain!  Time Replication occurs can be configured  Volume of Replication Traffic can not be restricted!  Have an Eye on GCs!

22  Improved Authentication  Permissions applied via ACLs - To Objects as whole - To Objects as whole - To specific Attributes - To specific Attributes  Fine-Tuning of Access Permissions possible  Tool-Support to visualize Security Settings. currently weak (try Visio!)

23  Time Savings  Repository of Information  Increased Security

24  DNS Dependency  No „Merge-Tree“  No Partitioning (only a single Domain per. Domain Controller)  Limited Tool-Support  Forest Global Schema  Schema-Modifications can not be undone

25  Applications directly using and accessing the Active. Directory - e.g. Exchange 2000 - e.g. Exchange 2000 - Many more expected! - Many more expected!  Typically extend the Schema  May dramatically change usage pattern for Active. Directory Resources - Replication Traffic (new Objects, Attributes) - Replication Traffic (new Objects, Attributes) - AD Queries (GCs!) - AD Queries (GCs!)


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