Presentation on theme: "Unit 3 Area of Study 2 Australian Cultural Communities “Debates about multiculturalism, immigration and refugees”"— Presentation transcript:
Unit 3 Area of Study 2 Australian Cultural Communities “Debates about multiculturalism, immigration and refugees”
Multiculturalism ◦ First, multiculturalism is often used to describe the diverse cultural make up of a society. ◦ Second, multiculturalism refers to a set of norms that uphold the right of the individual to retain and enjoy their culture. ◦ Third, multiculturalism is the name given to a government policy which seeks to recognise, manage and maximise the benefits of diversity.
Multiculturalism ◦ Australia’s multicultural policy Multicultural Australia United in Diversity: Strategic Directions 2003-2006 expired in 2006. ◦ There is currently no federal government policy on multiculturalism. ◦ The Rudd Government has recently established the Australian Multicultural Advisory Council to develop a new policy. The 16-member council, which includes representatives from the Filipino, Chinese and Islamic communities as well as human rights and anti- discrimination experts, will be chaired by the chief executive of the AFL, Andrew Demetriou.
What was the policy ◦ Multicultural Australia United in Diversity: Strategic Directions Who developed the policy ◦ Howard/Liberal When was it developed/applicable ◦ 2003-2006 Why was the policy developed ◦ Sought to recognise, manage and maximise the benefits of diversity How was the policy implemented ◦ Continuation of previous multicultural policies Where does the policy apply ◦ Federally
Use the “Ripple Effect” graphic organiser to identifying arguments for and against a multiculturalism policy in Australia Each argument needs to consider consequences, or “ripples” Refer to the articles ‘Australia must affirm its commitment to multiculturalism’, ‘Race offence against truth’ and ‘Anti-racist bid targets hot spots’ for ideasAustralia must affirm its commitment to multiculturalismRace offence against truthAnti-racist bid targets hot spots
Emigration ◦ Refers to the movement out of a country Immigration ◦ Refers to the movement of people into a country ◦ There are two programs designed to help people wanting to come to Australia permanently: Migration program Humanitarian program Difference between migrant and refugee ◦ Migrants choose when to leave their country, where they go and when they return ◦ Refugees flee their country for their own safety and cannot return unless the situation that forced them to leave improves
Go to the ABS website and answer the following: ◦ In 2007-08, how many new settlers arrived from overseas? ◦ How many were under each of the following categories: ◦ Skills Stream ◦ Family Stream ◦ New Zealanders ( Trans-Tasman Travel Agreement ) ◦ Refugees (and humanitarian entrants) ◦ Others (including former citizens returning ◦ Qualified under special eligibility criteria ◦ In 2007-08, how many people already in Australia on temporary visas were granted visas allowing them to stay permanently? ◦ How man were under each of the following categories: ◦ Skills Stream ◦ Family Stream ◦ Refugees (and humanitarian entrants) ◦ Qualified under special eligibility criteria
Until the 1970s, the White Australia Policy restricted immigration from non-European countries. Are we still a “White Australia”? Use the ‘Face the Facts’ booklet to identify the top 10 countries of birth for 2007-08.
The following categories are used by the Department of Immigration and Citizenship (DIAC) to select who can get an Australian visa: Skilled Stream Migrants Family Stream Migrants Humanitarian Program Entrants Use the ‘Face the Facts’ booklet to describe the eligibility for each criteria.
Would the migrants in the Safeway ad be allowed to become citizens today? ◦ On 30 May 2007 the Australian Citizenship Amendment (Citizenship Testing) Bill was introduced into parliamentAustralian Citizenship Amendment (Citizenship Testing) Bill The Bill amended the Australian Citizenship Act 2007Australian Citizenship Act 2007 ◦ The law now requires most permanent residents to complete an English-language test successfully before applying for Australian citizenship
Use the graphic organiser to consider how the intake of migrants has, or will, impact on Australia in the following ways: ◦ Politically ◦ Economically ◦ Environmentally ◦ Technologically ◦ Socially Consider things such as employment, welfare, declining fertility, aging population, crime, religious beliefs, etc Refer to the articles ‘Concerns on immigration continue to linger’, ‘Murky agenda behind this green debate’ and ‘Australia to boost skilled migrant numbers’.Concerns on immigration continue to lingerMurky agenda behind this green debateAustralia to boost skilled migrant numbers
What was the policy? Citizenship Test Who developed the policy? Howard/Liberal When was it developed/applicable? 2007 Why was the policy developed? So newly arrived migrants could be tested on their knowledge of Australian cultural values and norms How was the policy implemented? All migrants seeking citizenship in Australia were required to sit a test in English Where does the policy apply? Federally * Choose another policy relating to immigration and summarise it in the same manner as above.
Asylum seeker ◦ The terms asylum seeker and refuge are often confused. ◦ An asylum seeker is someone who has fled their own country and says that he or she is a refugee but whose claim has not yet been assessed by the country in which they are seeking protection. ◦ The number of people seeking asylum in Australia is relatively low: 50,700 - United States 45,600 - South Africa 36,400 - Sweden 06,303 - Australia
Refugee ◦ A refugee is someone who has been assessed by a national government or an international agency and meets the criteria set out under the Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees 1951 (Refugee Convention).Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees 1951 (Refugee Convention) eg, a person who flees to a foreign country or power to escape danger or persecution “owing to a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership or a particular social group, or political opinion, is outside the country of their nationality, and is unable to or, owing to such fear, is unwilling to avail him/herself of the protection of that country.” ◦ The concept of a refugee was expanded by the Conventions’ 1967 Protocol and by regional conventions in Africa and Latin America to include persons who had fled war or other violence in their home country.1967 Protocol
Refugee ◦ At the end of 2007, there were roughly 11.4 million refugees around the world that were under the responsibility of the United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). ◦ In 2007 the largest country of origin for refugees was: Afghanistan (3.1 million) Iraq (2.3 million) Columbia Sudan Somalia Burundi (Eastern Africa – borders Rwanda, Tanzania and Congo) ◦ Why do you think so many people sought asylum from those countries?
‘Authorised’ arrivals: ◦ enter Australia with a valid visa (tourist/student) ◦ can apply for a PPV (permanent protection visa) ◦ will get a bridging visa while protection claim is being assessed ‘Unauthorised’ arrivals ◦ enter Australia without a valid visa (by boat or air) ◦ detained for identity, health and security checks ◦ may be given a bridging visa
Under its Humanitarian Program, Australia accepts a number of refugees. Australia is only obligated to protect refugees if: ◦ the applicant has a well founded fear of persecution covered by the Convention ◦ the applicant has not committed war crimes or serious non-political crimes ◦ the applicant does not have effective protection in another country This program has two main parts: ◦ Off-shore resettlement (Refugee Visas and Special Humanitarian Program Visas) ◦ On-shore protection (Protection Visa (PV) and Permanent Protection Visa (PPV)) Based on the ‘Face the Facts’ booklet, explain how refugees are processed by the government and how this process has changed between the Howard and Rudd leadership.
Based on the ‘Face the Facts’ booklet, respond to the following questions: ◦ Why should Australia accept refugees? ◦ How should refugees be processed and/or detained? ◦ What settlement services should Australia provide? ◦ Describe debates about refugees during the Howard years including MV Tampa, the Pacific Solution and Temporary Protection Visas (TPV)? ◦ What did the “Inquiry into Children in Immigration Detention, A last resort?” find?
What was the policy Pacific Solution Who developed the policy Howard/Liberal When was it developed/applicable 2001-2007 Why was the policy developed So asylum seekers would not be processed in Australia How was the policy implemented Thousands of islands were re-zoned out of Australian territory, the Defence Force intercepted boats and relocated them to Pacific Islands, asylum seekers were taken to islands in the Pacific to be processed. Australia provided financial assistance to the participating islands. Where does the policy apply Federally * Choose another policy relating to refugees and summarise it in the same manner as above.
Write definitions of the following terms in your glossary: ◦ Assimilation ◦ Asylum seeker ◦ Integration ◦ Refugee