Presentation on theme: "Introduction and Key Terms"— Presentation transcript:
1 Introduction and Key Terms Our Solar SystemIntroduction and Key Terms
2 Learning Outcomes (Students will…) -Explain the theories for the origin of the solar system -Distinguish between questions that can be answered by science and those that cannot, and between problems that can be solved by technology and those that cannot with regards to solar system formation. -Estimate quantities of distances in parsec. Estimate the age of the solar system. -Describe and apply classification systems and nomenclature used in the sciences. Classify planets as terrestrial vs. Jovian, inner vs. outer, etc. Classify satellites. Classify meteoroid, asteroid, dwarf planet, planet. Classify comets as long period vs. short period. etc -Formulate operational definitions of major variables. Given data such as diameter and density describe the properties that divide the planets and moons into groups. -Tools and methods used to observe and measure the inner and the outer planets and the minor members of the solar system
3 Planetary SystemsA planetary system consists of the various non-stellar objects orbiting a star such as planets, dwarf planets, moons, asteroids, meteoroids, comets, and cosmic dust.
4 Solar System A specific planetary system around our star The region of space that falls within the gravitational influence of our SunIf you consider the edge of the Solar System to be Pluto’s orbit, the Solar System has a diameter of 79 AUConsists of:an ordinary yellow star – the SunEight PlanetsTheir moonsDwarf planetsAsteroids, Comets, Meteors and MeteoritesCosmic dust
5 StarA star is a massive, luminous ball of plasma that is held together by gravity.Our star is the SunThe gravity on the Sun is 274 m/s2Plasma – gas with ionized particles (some)- Electrically conductive
6 Planets There are now 8 planets in our Solar System The Sun is one of the foci for each of these planets
7 What is a Planet? Former definition: NASA (2000): Planet: A non-luminous celestial body larger than an asteroid or comet, illuminated by light from a star, such as the sun, around which it revolves.What is wrong with this definition?Why did the definition change?It changed due to Eris – new discovery, larger than Pluto
8 New definition: NASA (2006): A “planet” is a celestial body that(a) is in orbit around the Sun,(b) has sufficient mass for its self-gravity to overcome rigid body forces so that it assumes a hydrostatic equilibrium (nearly round) shape, and(c) has cleared the neighbourhood around its orbit.Has “space” around itAll the dwarf planets also orbit the Sun(b) there are no other bodies of comparable size other than its own satellites or those otherwise under its gravitational influence.
9 Classifying Planets Planets can be classified by: 1) Composition 2) Size3) Proximity to the Sun4) Position relative to Earth5) History
10 1) CompositionRocky or Terrestrial planets (4)Jovian planets (4)
11 Terrestrial Planets Composed primarily of rock and metal No rings Few satellites (moons)High densitySlow rotationSolid surface
12 Jovian Planets Composed primarily of gas (hydrogen and helium) Rings Many satellites (moons)Low densityRapid rotationDeep atmospheres
21 Classical Planets Known since prehistoric times Visible to the unaided eye (no telescope needed)In ancient times this term also referred to the Sun and the Moon
22 Modern Planets Discovered in modern times Visible only with optical aid or telescope
23 What is a Dwarf Planet? NASA (2006): A “dwarf planet” is a celestial body thatis in orbit around the Sun,has sufficient mass for its self-gravity to overcome rigid body forces so that it assumes a hydrostatic equilibrium (nearly round) shape,has not cleared the neighbourhood around its orbit, andis not a satellite.Celestial body is an astronomical body (planet, comet, etc)
24 SHAPE…Ceres (dwarf planet) Photo: Hubble Space Telescope
26 Dwarf Planets Pluto (direct observation) Ceres (direct observation) Discovered in 1801!!!Classified as a planet for 50 yearsDemoted to asteroidPromoted to dwarf planetEris (larger than Pluto)Discovered in 2005Controversial decision regarding Pluto…
27 Dwarf PlanetsMakemake and Haumea are determined to be dwarf planets using mathematical calculations…
28 Other Celestial Bodies in Our Solar System All objects besides planets and dwarf planets, except satellites, orbiting the Sun shall be referred to collectively as “Small Solar-System Bodies”.Some “small Solar-System bodies” include:AsteroidsComets
29 Asteroids (a) orbits the Sun inside the orbit of Jupiter An asteroid (or minor planet)(a) orbits the Sun inside the orbit of Jupiter(b) does not have sufficient mass for its self-gravity to overcome rigid body forces so that it assumes a hydrostatic equilibrium shape (it is not round shaped),(c) has not cleared the neighborhood around its orbit, and(d) is not a satellite.
32 Clearing the Neighborhood There are very few other objects in the vicinity of Jupiter and the inner planets that orbit the Sun.Vesta and Ceres have many other asteroids in relatively nearby orbits.Some students may point out that Jupiter and some of the inner planets have not completely cleared the neighborhood of other bodies. You may want to use the analogy, that when kids are asked to clean their rooms, there are degrees of clearing out that happens. Clearly, there is a difference between the degree of clearing between a planet such as Earth and a dwarf planet such as Ceres. Use image 1 to show that a dwarf planet is spherical in shape and image 3 to show that asteroids are not as round as dwarf planets.
34 Key Terms1) Draw a diagram for each with labels to show the difference between a planet, dwarf planet and asteroid.2) Create a metaphor or analogy for comparison.Generating metaphors using terms (e.g., planets are wanderers on a clear path)Generating analogies using terms (e.g., a dwarf planet is to planet as a minivan in traffic is to a van on the open road)
35 3) Create a Venn Diagram for these three terms.