Presentation on theme: "Chapter 11 Section 2. Main Idea Europeans embarked on a new phase of empire building that affected both Africa and the rest of the world. Many former."— Presentation transcript:
Main Idea Europeans embarked on a new phase of empire building that affected both Africa and the rest of the world. Many former colonies have political problems that are the result of colonial rule.
Introduction Europeans argued and fought among themselves for the lands of Africa. They paid no attention to historical political divisions or to the many ethnic and language groupings in Africa.
A New Period of Imperialism Unlike in the past, the Europeans demanded more influence over the economic, political, and social lives of the people. They were determined to shape the economies of the lands to benefit European economies. They also wanted the people to adopt European customs.
Forms of Control Each European nation had certain policies and goals for establishing colonies. Sometimes countries used a variety of the following to gain control of an area. Colony – Country or region governed by a foreign power. Protectorate – Country with its own government but under the control of a foreign power. Sphere of Influence – Area in which an outside power claims trading privileges. Economic Imperialism – independent but less developed nations controlled by private business.
Methods of Management Indirect Control (Britain & U.S.) Relied on existing political rulers. Limited self-rule. Developed future leaders that would govern in the form of the controlling power. Direct Control (French) Foreign officials ruled the country. Paternalism – govern in a fatherly way – providing for needs but not giving rights. Assimilation – local populations will become absorbed in foreign powers culture.
Case Study: Nigeria Britain gained control of Nigeria through diplomatic and military means. Some local rulers agreed to sign treaties of protection with Britain and accepted British residents. Others opposed foreign intervention and rebelled against it. British defeated rebellions. Declared Nigeria a British colony in 1914.
Managing the Colony Now that Nigeria was a colony, Britain had to control it. There were 250 diverse ethnic groups in Nigeria. Britain was forced to turn to indirect control.
African Resistance Africans resisted European attempts to colonize their land. This battle was never equal because the Europeans had superior weapons. With the exception of Ethiopia, the resistance efforts failed.
Unsuccessful Movements Algeria resisted the French for over 50 years. Africans in German East Africa believed that maji- maji, magic water, sprinkled on their skin would turn German bullets into water. Obviously, this did not work. 75,000 died.
Ethiopia: A Successful Resistance Ethiopia’s success was due to Menelik II. Emperor of Ethiopia. Menelik played the Italians, French and the British against each other. Italians tricked Menelik into almost agreeing to hand over his country. Declared war against Italy and defeated them at the Battle of Adowa.
Impact of Colonialism Positives Reduced local warfare Improved sanitation Hospitals and schools Increase of life spans and literacy rate Economic expansion – African products sold internationally Railroads, dams, telephones, telegraph Mainly benefited Europeans
Impact of Colonialism Negatives Africans lost control of land Lost culture – forced to leave villages to work in mines or plantations Death of millions – disease, famine and war Divided the African continent Occurred whenever an imperial power forced colonialism on a country. Examples – Britain – India, Africa France – Africa, Southeast Asia U. S. – Pacific Ocean, American West
Questions 1. How was the new form of imperialism different from that in the past? 2. What is the difference in direct and indirect control? 3. How many years did Algeria resist the French? 4. Why did Menelik II declare war on Italy? 5. What were some of the positives and negatives of colonialism?