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**Sampling Designs and Sampling Procedures**

(Source: W.G Zikmund, B.J Babin, J.C Carr and M. Griffin, Business Research Methods, 8th Edition, U.S, South-Western Cengage Learning, 2008)

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Objectives Explain reasons for taking a sample rather than a complete census Describe the process of identifying a target population and selecting a sampling frame Compare random sampling and systematic (nonsampling) errors Identify the types of nonprobability sampling, including their advantages and disadvantages Summarize the advantages and disadvantages of the various types of probability samples

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**Sampling Terminology A subset, or some part, of a larger population.**

Sample A subset, or some part, of a larger population. Population (universe) Any complete group of entities that share some common set of characteristics. Population Element An individual member of a population. Census An investigation of all the individual elements that make up a population.

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**Why Sample? Pragmatic Reasons Budget and time constraints.**

Limited access to total population. Accurate and Reliable Results Samples can yield reasonably accurate information. Strong similarities in population elements makes sampling possible. Sampling may be more accurate than a census. Destruction of Test Units Sampling reduces the costs of research in finite populations.

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**Stages in the Selection of a Sample**

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Sampling Concepts Defining the Target Population What is the relevant population? Whom do we want to talk to? Population is operationally defined by specific and explicit tangible characteristics. The Sampling Frame A list of elements from which a sample may be drawn; also called working population. Sampling Frame Error Occurs when certain sample elements are not listed or are not accurately represented in a sampling frame.

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**Sampling Units Sampling Unit**

A single element or group of elements subject to selection in the sample. Primary Sampling Unit (PSU) A unit selected in the first stage of sampling. Secondary Sampling Unit A unit selected in the second stage of sampling. Tertiary Sampling Unit A unit selected in the third stage of sampling.

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**Random Sampling and Nonsampling Errors**

Random Sampling Error The difference between the sample result and the result of a census conducted using identical procedures. A statistical fluctuation that occurs because of chance variations in the elements selected for a sample. Systematic Sampling Error Systematic (nonsampling) error results from nonsampling factors, primarily the nature of a study’s design and the correctness of execution. It is not due to chance fluctuation.

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**Errors Associated with Sampling**

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**Probability versus Nonprobability Sampling**

A sampling technique in which every member of the population has a known, nonzero probability of selection. Nonprobability Sampling A sampling technique in which units of the sample are selected on the basis of personal judgment or convenience. The probability of any particular member of the population being chosen is unknown.

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**Nonprobability Sampling**

Convenience Sampling Obtaining those people or units that are most conveniently available. Judgment (Purposive) Sampling An experienced individual selects the sample based on personal judgment about some appropriate characteristic of the sample member. Quota Sampling Ensures that various subgroups of a population will be represented on pertinent characteristics to the exact extent that the investigator desires.

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**Nonprobability Sampling (cont’d)**

Possible Sources Of Bias Respondents chosen because they were: Similar to interviewer Easily found Willing to be interviewed Middle-class Advantages of Quota Sampling Speed of data collection Lower costs Convenience

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**Nonprobability Sampling (cont’d)**

Snowball Sampling A sampling procedure in which initial respondents are selected by probability methods and additional respondents are obtained from information provided by the initial respondents.

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Probability Sampling Simple Random Sampling Assures each element in the population of an equal chance of being included in the sample. Systematic Sampling A starting point is selected by a random process and then every nth number on the list is selected. Stratified Sampling Simple random subsamples that are more or less equal on some characteristic are drawn from within each stratum of the population.

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**Proportional versus Disproportional Sampling**

Proportional Stratified Sample The number of sampling units drawn from each stratum is in proportion to the population size of that stratum. Disproportional Stratified Sample The sample size for each stratum is allocated according to analytical considerations.

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**Disproportional Sampling: Hypothetical Example**

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**Cluster Sampling Cluster Sampling**

An economically efficient sampling technique in which the primary sampling unit is not the individual element in the population but a large cluster of elements. Clusters are selected randomly.

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Examples of Clusters

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**Multistage Area Sampling**

Involves using a combination of two or more probability sampling techniques. Typically, geographic areas are randomly selected in progressively smaller (lower-population) units. Researchers may take as many steps as necessary to achieve a representative sample. Progressively smaller geographic areas are chosen until a single housing unit is selected for interviewing.

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**Geographic Hierarchy Inside Urbanized Areas**

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