Presentation on theme: "Sampling Designs and Sampling Procedures"— Presentation transcript:
1 Sampling Designs and Sampling Procedures (Source: W.G Zikmund, B.J Babin, J.C Carr and M. Griffin, Business Research Methods, 8th Edition, U.S, South-Western Cengage Learning, 2008)
2 ObjectivesExplain reasons for taking a sample rather than a complete censusDescribe the process of identifying a target population and selecting a sampling frameCompare random sampling and systematic (nonsampling) errorsIdentify the types of nonprobability sampling, including their advantages and disadvantagesSummarize the advantages and disadvantages of the various types of probability samples
3 Sampling Terminology A subset, or some part, of a larger population. SampleA subset, or some part, of a larger population.Population (universe)Any complete group of entities that share some common set of characteristics.Population ElementAn individual member of a population.CensusAn investigation of all the individual elements that make up a population.
4 Why Sample? Pragmatic Reasons Budget and time constraints. Limited access to total population.Accurate and Reliable ResultsSamples can yield reasonably accurate information.Strong similarities in population elements makes sampling possible.Sampling may be more accurate than a census.Destruction of Test UnitsSampling reduces the costs of research in finite populations.
6 Sampling ConceptsDefining the Target PopulationWhat is the relevant population?Whom do we want to talk to?Population is operationally defined by specific and explicit tangible characteristics.The Sampling FrameA list of elements from which a sample may be drawn; also called working population.Sampling Frame ErrorOccurs when certain sample elements are not listed or are not accurately represented in a sampling frame.
7 Sampling Units Sampling Unit A single element or group of elements subject to selection in the sample.Primary Sampling Unit (PSU)A unit selected in the first stage of sampling.Secondary Sampling UnitA unit selected in the second stage of sampling.Tertiary Sampling UnitA unit selected in the third stage of sampling.
8 Random Sampling and Nonsampling Errors Random Sampling ErrorThe difference between the sample result and the result of a census conducted using identical procedures.A statistical fluctuation that occurs because of chance variations in the elements selected for a sample.Systematic Sampling ErrorSystematic (nonsampling) error results from nonsampling factors, primarily the nature of a study’s design and the correctness of execution.It is not due to chance fluctuation.
10 Probability versus Nonprobability Sampling A sampling technique in which every member of the population has a known, nonzero probability of selection.Nonprobability SamplingA sampling technique in which units of the sample are selected on the basis of personal judgment or convenience.The probability of any particular member of the population being chosen is unknown.
11 Nonprobability Sampling Convenience SamplingObtaining those people or units that are most conveniently available.Judgment (Purposive) SamplingAn experienced individual selects the sample based on personal judgment about some appropriate characteristic of the sample member.Quota SamplingEnsures that various subgroups of a population will be represented on pertinent characteristics to the exact extent that the investigator desires.
12 Nonprobability Sampling (cont’d) Possible Sources Of BiasRespondents chosen because they were:Similar to interviewerEasily foundWilling to be interviewedMiddle-classAdvantages of Quota SamplingSpeed of data collectionLower costsConvenience
13 Nonprobability Sampling (cont’d) Snowball SamplingA sampling procedure in which initial respondents are selected by probability methods and additional respondents are obtained from information provided by the initial respondents.
14 Probability SamplingSimple Random SamplingAssures each element in the population of an equal chance of being included in the sample.Systematic SamplingA starting point is selected by a random process and then every nth number on the list is selected.Stratified SamplingSimple random subsamples that are more or less equal on some characteristic are drawn from within each stratum of the population.
15 Proportional versus Disproportional Sampling Proportional Stratified SampleThe number of sampling units drawn from each stratum is in proportion to the population size of that stratum.Disproportional Stratified SampleThe sample size for each stratum is allocated according to analytical considerations.
17 Cluster Sampling Cluster Sampling An economically efficient sampling technique in which the primary sampling unit is not the individual element in the population but a large cluster of elements.Clusters are selected randomly.
19 Multistage Area Sampling Involves using a combination of two or more probability sampling techniques.Typically, geographic areas are randomly selected in progressively smaller (lower-population) units.Researchers may take as many steps as necessary to achieve a representative sample.Progressively smaller geographic areas are chosen until a single housing unit is selected for interviewing.