Presentation on theme: "Lessons from the OECD Teacher Policy Report Paulo Santiago"— Presentation transcript:
1 Teachers Matter: Attracting, Developing and Retaining Effective Teachers Lessons from the OECD Teacher Policy ReportPaulo SantiagoEducation and Training Policy DivisionDirectorate for Education, OECDImproving Learning Through Formative AssessmentInternational ConferenceOECD - CERIParis, 2 February 2005
2 Outline of Presentation 1. The OECD Project Attracting, Developing and Retaining Effective Teachers2. The impact of teachers and teaching on student learning3. Policy context4. Teachers’ roles are changing5. Policy priorities: Developing teachers’ knowledge and skills6. Other relevant policy priorities
3 OECD’s Activity “Attracting, Developing and Retaining Effective Teachers” PurposeTo provide policy makers with information and analysis to assist them in formulating and implementing teacher policies leading to quality teaching and learning at the school level.Objectivesto synthesise research on issues related to policies concerned with attracting, recruiting, retaining and developing effective teachers;to identify innovative and successful policy initiatives and practices;to facilitate exchanges of lessons and experiences among countries; andto identify policy options. Focus is on teacher policy, not the practice and performance level of teachers. Study did not address teaching/classroom strategies per se.
4 Participating countries OECD’s Activity “Attracting, Developing and Retaining Effective Teachers”Participating countries25 countriesAustralia, Austria, Belgium (Flemish and French Comm.), Canada (Quebec), Chile, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, the Netherlands, Norway, Slovak Republic, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, United States.10 countries visited by review teamsAustria, Belgium (Flemish and French Comm.), Germany, Hungary, Italy, Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland.
5 OECD’s Activity “Attracting, Developing and Retaining Effective Teachers” Analytical approachThe Activity has drawn on country experience and research to identify a range of policy directions in five main areas:Making teaching an attractive career choiceDeveloping teachers’ knowledge and skillsRecruiting, selecting and employing teachersRetaining effective teachers in schoolsDeveloping and implementing teacher policy
6 Three broad conclusions emerge from research on student learning The Impact of Teachers and Teaching on Student LearningThree broad conclusions emerge from research on student learning1. Largest source of variation in student learning is attributable to differences in what students bring to school – their abilities and attitudes, and family and community background.2. Of those variables which are potentially open to policy influence, factors to do with teachers and teaching are the most important influences on student learning.
7 The Impact of Teachers and Teaching on Student Learning (continued) Three broad conclusions emerge from research on student learning (continued)3. It is difficult to predict who is going to be a good teacher just by considering the more measurable characteristics of teachers (e.g. qualifications, teaching experience, and indicators of academic ability and subject-matter knowledge) .There are many important aspects of teacher quality that are not captured by the more measurable characteristics, such as:Ability to convey ideas in clear and convincing ways;To create effective learning environments for different types of students;to foster productive teacher-student relationships;to be enthusiastic and creative;to work effectively with colleagues and parents.
8 Policy ContextAbout half the countries report serious concerns about maintaining an adequate supply of good quality teachers, especially in high-demand subject areasThere are widespread concerns about long-term trends in the composition of the teaching workforce e.g. fewer “high achievers”, and fewer malesThere are major concerns about the limited connections between teacher education, professional development, and school needsSome countries experience high rates of teacher attrition, especially among new teachersSome countries have a large over-supply of qualified teachers, which raises its own policy challenges
9 Policy Context (continued) In some countries there are serious concerns about teacher morale and enthusiasmAlmost all countries report concerns about “qualitative” shortfalls: whether enough teachers have the knowledge and skills to meet school needsThe ageing of the teaching profession is compounding policy concerns
10 Teachers’ Roles are changing Teachers are now expected to have much broader rolesAt the individual student levelInitiating and managing learning processes;Responding effectively to the learning needs of individual learners;Integrating formative and summative assessment.At the classroom levelTeaching in multicultural classrooms;New cross-curricular emphases;Integrating students with special needs.
11 Teachers’ Roles are changing Teachers are now expected to have much broader roles (continued)At the school levelWorking and planning in teams;Evaluation and systematic improvement planning;ICT use in teaching and administration;Projects between schools, and international cooperation;Management and shared leadership.At the level of parents and the wider communityProviding professional advice to parents;Building community partnerships for learning.
12 Policy priorities: Developing teachers‘ knowledge and skills Developing teacher profilesClear and concise standards of what teachers are expected to know and be able to doreflect broad range of competencies.provide framework to guide and integrate initial teacher education, certification, induction andon-going professional development.should be evidence-based and reflect student learning objectives.should be built on active involvement by teaching profession.
13 Policy priorities: Developing teachers‘ knowledge and skills Initial teacher educationImprove selection into teacher educationInformation and counsellingAssessmentEarly school experienceIncentives for high potentialsProvide more flexible forms of initial teacher educationModular, part-time, distance educationAlternate routes for mid-career changersStrengthen partnerships between teacher education institutions and schoolsOvert and deliberate partnershipsEarlier and broader field experience
14 Policy priorities: Developing teachers‘ knowledge and skills Strengthening induction programmesFormalise induction programmesQualify mentor teachersProvide sufficient resources for inductionreduced teaching obligation for mentors and beginning teachersLink successful completion of induction to certification
15 Policy priorities: Developing teachers‘ knowledge and skills Integrating professional development throughout the teaching careerProvide incentives for lifelong learning of all teachersEntitle teachers to release time and/or financial support for professional developmentCreate incentives: e.g., link professional development to teacher appraisal and career advancementLink individual teacher development with school improvement needs
16 Policy priorities: Developing teachers‘ knowledge and skills Broaden the range of different professional development opportunities, e.g.peer review and action researchmutual school visitsteacher and school networksProvide more coherent framework for professional development, develop teachers’ learning communitiestraining, practice and feedbackfollow-up rather than “one shot events”teacher portfolios
17 Other relevant policy priorities Providing schools with more responsibility for teacher personnel developmentSchools need to have more responsibility – and accountability – for teacher selection, working conditions, and development.Pre-requisites:Developing school leaders’ skills in personnel management;Providing disadvantaged schools with greater resources;Monitoring the outcomes of a more decentralised approach;Creating independent appeals procedures to ensure fairness and protect teachers’ rights.Broadening the criteria for teacher selectionThe selection criteria for new teachers need to be broadened to ensure that the applicants with the greatest potential are identified
18 Other relevant policy priorities Evaluating and rewarding effective teachingThere needs to be a stronger emphasis on teacher evaluation for improvement purposes.Opportunity for teachers’ work to be recognised and celebrated and help both teachers and schools to identify developmental needsPre-requisites:Teacher appraisal to occur within a framework provided by profession-wide agreed statements of standards of professional performance;Evaluators need to be trained and evaluated themselves;Evaluation frameworks and tools need to be provided.
19 Other relevant policy priorities Providing more opportunities for career diversificationTeaching would benefit from a career ladder based on skills, responsibilities and performance. There needs to be more opportunities for career diversity and mobility (between schools, between roles, and between teaching and other careers)Teaching needs to become a knowledge-rich professionTeaching needs to become a knowledge-rich profession in which individuals continually develop, and have the incentives and opportunities to do so, research is integrated into practice, and schools become professional learning communities that encourage and draw on teachers’ development
20 Other relevant policy priorities Improving leadership and school climateA range of initiatives should be taken to strengthen leadership in schools:Improve training, selection and evaluation processes for school principals;Establish leadership teams in schools;School leaders to be trained and supported in conducting evaluations and linking them to school planning.
21 Other relevant policy priorities Improving working conditionsThere needs to be an explicit recognition of the wide variety of tasks that teaching actually entailsWell trained support and administrative staff can help to reduce the burden on teachers and free them to concentrate on the tasks of teaching and learningBetter facilities at school for staff preparation and planning would help in building collegiality and in programme provision
22 Final Report For further information: www.oecd.org/edu/teacherpolicy Teachers Matter: Attracting, Developing and Retaining Effective TeachersTo be published as an OECD Publication in early 2005For further information: