Presentation on theme: "“Three Cycle System in the Framework of Bologna Process”, Summer School, Yerevan, Armenia, 2008 Requirements for awarding a doctorate. Dublin descriptors."— Presentation transcript:
“Three Cycle System in the Framework of Bologna Process”, Summer School, Yerevan, Armenia, 2008 Requirements for awarding a doctorate. Dublin descriptors Algirdas Vaclovas Valiulis, Bologna expert, Lithuania
Background (1) The Bologna reform movement is almost 8 years old, and most people are familiar with the process and the new structure of European HE degrees. The European Universities Association reports that, ‘over half of European universities have reviewed their curricula entirely, using the Bologna reforms to implement a more student-focused approach.
Background (2) In Bologna process implementation period guidelines and reference points for curriculum development have been, or are in the process of being formulated. From these guidelines it is apparent that the EHEA is moving away from input-oriented curriculum design (defined by what the professor teaches) toward output-oriented curriculum design (defined by the skills and competencies with which students will graduate). Bologna process is seeking to find points of reference between national qualifications frameworks and the future European Qualifications Framework through the use of learning outcomes.European Qualifications Framework
Background (3) The Berlin Communique 2003 added a third cycle to the Bologna process to include doctor education and promote links between the European Research Area (ERA) and the European Higher Education Area (EHEA). The member States were encouraged to elaborate a framework of comparable and compatible qualifications for their higher education systems, which should seek to describe qualifications in terms of workload, level, learning outcomes, competences and profile. They also undertake to elaborate an overarching framework of qualifications for the European Higher Education Area.
Background (4) While the full integration of common European learning outcomes into national qualification frameworks still appears to be something of a distant goal, the Dublin Descriptors offer a window into the direction that curriculum design is headed in the European Higher Education Area. The idea is that while European degree programs will vary among institutions and subjects, they will nonetheless equip students with a set of cycle-specific core competencies designed to meet the needs of the workplace and also to prepare students for further studies.
Background (5) Within such frameworks, degrees should have different defined outcomes. First and second cycle degrees should have different orientations and various profiles in order to accommodate a diversity of individual, academic and labour market needs. First cycle degrees should give access, to second cycle programmes. Second cycle degrees should give access to doctoral studies.
Doctorates (1) The various types of doctorate in use across Europe include three broad types: the doctorate that is predominantly research based (often awarded PhD), the professional doctorate (UK), the so-called "higher doctorates' (UK, Ireland, Denmark)
Doctorates (2) The professional or practitioner doctorate require that the candidate completes a substantial piece of original research that is comparable "in standard if not in scale" to a supervised PhD. The “Higher doctorates” require attributes that are different in character from those required for PhD’s or professional doctorates. The Doctoral descriptors encompass the outcomes of research-based and professional doctorates, but it not refer to particular forms of study
Dublin descriptors for third cycle studies (1) Doctoral degrees are awarded to students who: have demonstrated the ability to conceive, design, implement and adapt a substantial process of research with scholarly integrity; have made a contribution through original research that extends the frontier of knowledge by developing a substantial body of work, some of which merits national or international refereed publication; advancement in a knowledge based society;
Dublin descriptors for third cycle studies (2) are capable of critical analysis, evaluation and synthesis of new and complex ideas; can communicate with their peers, the larger scholarly community and with society in general about their areas of expertise; can be expected to be able to promote, within academic and professional contexts, technological, social or cultural advancement in a knowledge based society;
Dublin descriptors for third cycle studies (3) The objective of a doctoral program is to motivate and prepare PhD candidates in such a way that they are able: to carry out research independently, to analyse scientific events with wide and deep perception, to determine necessary steps to reach new synthesis, to make original contributions to science. It is this special characteristic, the creation of new knowledge, which distinguishes Doctoral from the two preceding levels (BSc and MSc) of higher education.
Differentiating between cycles (1) Cycle 1 (Bachelor) 2 (Master) 3 (Doctorate) Knowledge and understanding: [is] supported by advanced text books [with] some aspects informed by knowledge at the forefront of their field of study. provides a basis or opportunity for originality in developing or applying ideas often in a research context. [includes] a systematic understanding of their field of study and mastery of the methods of research associated with that field
Differentiating between cycles (2) Cycle 1 (Bachelor) 2 (Master) 3 (Doctorate) Applying knowledge and understanding: [through] devising and sustaining arguments [through] problem solving abilities [applied] in new or unfamiliar environments within broader (or multidisciplinary) contexts. [is demonstrated by the] ability to conceive, design, implement and adapt a substantial process of research with scholarly integrity. [is in the context of] a contribution that extends the frontier of knowledge by developing a substantial body of work some of which merits national or international refereed publication
Differentiating between cycles (3) Cycle 1 (Bachelor) 2 (Master) 3 (Doctorate) Making judgements: [involves] gathering and interpreting relevant data. [demonstrates] the ability to integrate knowledge and formulate judgements with incomplete data. [requires being] capable of critical analysis, evaluation complex ideas
Differentiating between cycles (4) Cycle 1 (Bachelor) 2 (Master) 3 (Doctorate) Communication [of] information, ideas, problems and solutions. [of] their conclusions and the underpinning knowledge and rationale (restricted scope) to specialist and non- specialist audiences (monologue). with their peers, the larger scholarly community and with society in (dialogue) about their areas of expertise (broad scope)
Differentiating between cycles (5) Cycle 1 (Bachelor) 2 (Master) 3 (Doctorate) Learning skills have developed those skills needed to study further with a high level of autonomy. study in a manner that may be largely self-directed or autonomous expected to be able to promote, within academic and professional contexts, technological, social or cultural advancement.