2 1. A monopolist always faces a demand curve that is a. perfectly inelastic.b. perfectly elastic.c. unit elastic.d. the same as the market demand curve.D. A monopoly is the only seller, so there is no distinction between the market demand curve and the individual demand curve.
3 2. A monopoly sets theprice at which marginal revenue equals zero.b. price that maximizes total revenue.c. highest possible price on its demand curve.d. price at which marginal revenue equalsmarginal cost.D. As shown in the next slide, profits arealways maximized if the firm producesat the point where MR = MC.
4 3. A monopolist setsa. the highest possible price.b. a price corresponding to the minimumaverage total cost.c. a price equal to marginal revenue.d. a price determined by the point on thedemand curve corresponding to the levelof output at which marginal revenueequals marginal cost.e. none of the above.D. Demand determines price in all market forms.
5 4. Which of the following is true for the monopolist?a. Economic profit is possible in the long-run.b. Marginal revenue is less than the pricecharged.c. Profit maximizing or loss minimizingoccurs when marginal revenue equalsmarginal cost.d. All of the above are true.D. As shown in the graph on the next slide, all of the above are characteristics of a monopoly.
6 .Exhibit 11 Profit Maximizing for a Monopolist40MC30Price, costs and revenue (dollars)ATC20AVC10DMR100200300400Quanitity of output (units per day)
7 5. As shown in Exhibit 11, the profit-maximizing or loss-minimizing output for this monopolist is a. 100 units per day.b. 200 units per day.c. 300 units per day.d. 400 units per day.B. 200 units is the point at which MR = MC.
8 6. As shown in Exhibit 11, this monopolist a. should shut down in the short-run.b. should shut down in the long-run.c. earns zero economic profit.d. earns positive economic profit.D. At the point where MR = MC (on thevertical line), P is greater than ATC;therefore, total revenue is greater than totalcost and an economic profit is being made.
9 7. To maximize profit or minimize loss, the monopolist in Exhibit 11 should set its price ata. $30 per unit.b. $25 per unit.c. $20 per unit.d. $10 per unit.e. $40 per unit.B. Maximum profit or minimized lossesare found by drawing a vertical linewhere MR = MC. This line intersects thedemand curve at $25.
10 8. If the monopolist in Exhibit 11 operates at the profit-maximizing output, it will earn total revenue to pay about what portion of its total fixed cost?a. None.b. One-half.c. Two-thirds.d. All total fixed costs.Since the monopolist is making a profit, it can pay all of its fixed costs.
11 9. For a monopolist to practice effective price discrimination, one necessary condition isidentical demand curves among groups of buyers.b. differences in the price elasticity of demand among groups of buyers.c. a homogeneous product.d. none of the above.B. Price discrimination takes place when a monopolist is faced with buyers that are widely different; therefore, the buyers elasticity of demand for the product will be different.
12 10. What is the act of buying a commodity at a lower price and selling it at a higher price?a. Buying short.b. Discounting.c. Tariffing.d. Arbitrage.D. The practice of earning a profit bybuying a good at a low price andreselling the good at a higher price.
13 11. Under both perfect competition and monopoly, a firma. is a price taker.b. is a price maker.c. will shut down in the short run if price fallsshort of average total cost.d. always earns a pure economic profit.e. sets marginal cost equal to marginalrevenue.E. The profit maximizing output for anyfirm is where MR = MC.
14 12. At any point where a monopolist’s marginal revenue is positive, thedownward-sloping straight-line demandcurve isa. perfectly elastic.b. elastic, but not perfectly elastic.c. unitary elastic.d. inelastic.B. When marginal revenue is zero, the demand curve is unitary elastic, and it is inelastic when marginal revenue is negative. Demand is perfectly elastic in perfect competition.
15 13. Suppose a monopolist charges a price corresponding to the intersection of the marginal cost and marginal revenuecurves. If this price is between its average variable cost andaverage total cost curves, the firm willa. earn an economic profit.b. stay in operation in the short-run, but shut down in thelong run if demand remains the same.c. shut down.d. none of the above.B. If the firm can cover its average variable cost, it is paying for the cost of operating. In the long run, demand could increase and the firm earns economic profit.
16 14. In contrast to a perfectly competitive firm, a monopolist operates in the long run at aquantity of output at whicha. P = MC.b. MR = MC.c. P = ATC.d. P > MR.D. The perfectly competitive firm’s demand curve is perfectly elastic; therefore, the firms operates where P = MR. For a monopolist, the MR curve is downward sloping and below the price.
17 15. The monopolist, unlike the perfectly competitive firm, can continue to earn aneconomic profit in the long run because ofa. collusive agreements with competitors.b. price leadership.c. cartels.d. a dominant firm.e. extremely high barriers to entry.E. Answers a. – d. can increase a monopolist’s profits, but a key characteristic that results in long run economic profit is an extremely high barrier to entry.