Presentation on theme: "Teaching Listening Sonja Follett English Language Fellow"— Presentation transcript:
1 Teaching Listening Sonja Follett English Language Fellow Play “This I believe”- Sarah Roahen. Ask Ts to take notes. Don’t give further instructions…revisit activity later to demonstrate the importance of context.Sonja FollettEnglish Language FellowKhovd University, Khovd, Mongolia
2 Listening Is an ‘active’ skill Is a ‘receptive’ skill Happens in real timeIs it a neglected skill?
3 Why Teach Listening?It helps students acquire language subconsciou slyIt provides vital information– grammar structure– contextualization of new vocabulary– pronunciation, rhythm, stress, intonation• Real communication requires both listening compre hension and speaking
4 We Listen… Twice as much as we speak Four times more than we read Five times more than we write(Rivers 1981, Weaver 1972 in Celce- Murcia, M. Teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language, p. 70)
5 Considerations in Teaching Listening What are listeners doing when they listen?What factors affect good listening?What are characteristics of “real‐life” listening?What are the many things listeners listen for?What are some principles for designing listening techniq uesHow can listening techniques be interactive?What are some common techniques for teaching listenin g?
6 Listening is a Complex, Interactive Skill Processes in listening comprehensionRaw speech is processed into short‐term memoryType of speech event is determined/assigned (conv ersation, lecture, TV ad, etc.)Assessment of speaker’s objective (inform, persuade , request, etc.)Background information (schema) applied to aid in comprehensionLiteral meaning assigned to message
7 Listening is a Complex, Interactive Skill Processes in listening comprehensionIntended meaning assigned to message; different from literal messageDetermination to commit information to short‐term or lo ng‐term memoryOriginal words, phrases, and sentences are (largely) “pr uned” and the message concept is retained.Listening is an interactive process and learners may have difficulty at any of these steps
8 What Makes Listening Difficult? Clustering- Spoken language is “chunked” into phrases and clausesRedundancy- Rephrasing, repetition, elaborations are helpful (extra information, extra time) but make “tracking” speech difficultReduced forms-Phonological (“Jeet?”), morphological (“I’ll”), syntactic (“Finish yet?”)
9 What Makes Listening Difficult? Performance variables-Hesitations, false starts, pauses, corrections, ungrammatical formsColloquial language-Idioms, slang, reduced forms, shared cultural knowledgeRate of delivery-Speed of stream of speech; little opportunity to “re- listen”
10 What Makes Listening Difficult? Stress, rhythm, and intonation-Prosodic features of English cause difficultyInteraction- Rules of conversation, negotiation, turn-taking, topic nomination and maintenance; two-way, interactive skill
11 How do we listen to listen to incoming incoming messages? TopDown ProcessingInteractive ProcessingBottomUp Processing
12 Bottom-Up Processing Knowledge of: -Vocabulary, grammar, sounds Use background knowledgeDriven by text factors– Sounds– Words– Phrases– Stress/intonation patterns
13 Types of Listening Skills Micro-skillsSentence levelRetain chunks of language in short-term memoryDiscriminate among the sounds of EnglishRecognize stress and intonation patternsRecognize grammatical word classesProcess at different rates of deliveryDistinguish word boundariesRecognize word order patterns
14 Top Down Processing Based on : General Knowledge/Life experience (Content Schemata)Knowledge of situational routines (textual schema)Activate previous knowledgeDriven by learner factors: the listeners – Expectations– Understanding of the topic– Context– Knowledge of the world (Rubin and Peterson)
15 Types of Listening Skills Macro-skillsDiscourse levelRecognize cohesion devicesRecognize communicative functionsDistinguish main and supporting ideas, new and understood informationDistinguish literal and implied meaningsUnderstand nonverbal communication signalsUse listening strategies: guessing from context, asking for help, signaling (lack of) comprehension
16 Types of Classroom Listening Reactive (listen and repeat)Intensive (listen for specific sounds, discourse mark ers, intonation patterns, etc.)Responsive (listen and respond – briefly)Selective (listen for particular items in a longer stret ch of discourse)Extensive (listen for global comprehension)Interactive (authentic communication; listening as p art of discussion, conversation, debate, etc.)
17 Selective Listening Prepositions Beatles: Eleanor Rigby Warm upActivity: Students listen and write the prepositions Is one listening enough?
18 Extensive Listening: This I Believe Listening for global comprehensionListen to the “This I believe…” presentation and identify the main idea.What is important to the speaker?
19 Principles for Teaching Listening Integrate listening practice into the courseDon’t assume it “just happens”Appeal to students’ intrinsic motivationInclude local culture and preexisting schemaUse authentic language and contextsHighlight relevance to real-life needsConsider how students will respondListening cannot be seen; infer comprehensionTeach listening strategiesInclude both bottom-up AND top-down listening
20 Successful Listening Activities Purpose for ListeningA form of response (doing, choosing, answering, transferring, condensing, duplicating, extending, conversing)Repetition depends on T objectives and students’ levelA motivating listening text is authentic and relates to students’ interests and needsHave the skills integratedStages: Pre-task , While-task, Post-task
21 Listening Strategies Teach student how to listen Looking for keywords Looking for nonverbal cues to meaningPredicting a speaker’s purpose by the context of the spoken discourseAssociating information with one’s existing background knowledge (activating schema)Guessing meaningsSeeking clarificationListening for the general gistFor tests of listening comprehension, various test-taking strategies
23 Easy-to-plan Listening Tasks Agree or disagree (with explanation)Create Venn diagramsList characteristics, qualities, or featuresStrip story (sequencing game)Match speech to visualsCompare and contrast to another speech or textGive advice
24 More Listening Tasks Compare and contrast to your own experience Create your own version of the missing sectionPlan a solution to the problemShare reactionsCreate a visualReenact your own version
25 Easy to Plan Post-listening Assessments Guess the meaning of unknown vocabularyAnalyze the speaker’s intentionsList the number of people involved and their function in the scriptAnalyze the success of communication in the scriptBrainstorm alternative ways of expression
27 ReferencesBailey, K.M. (2005). Practical English Language Teaching: Speaking . New York: McGraw- Hill.Bishop, G. (2006). AP State English Lecturers Retraining Program Teacher’s Handboook . Senior ELF Seminar Series given in Hyderabad, India.Brown, H.D. (2001). Teaching by principles: An interactive approach to language pedagogy . White Plains, NY: Longman.Helgesen, M. (2003). Listening. In D. Nunan (Ed.). Practical English Language Teaching . New York: McGraw-Hill.Liao, X.A. (2001). Information Gap in Communicative Classrooms. EL Forum, 39 (4). Retrieved from .Lynch, T. (2003). Communication in the language classroom . Oxford: Oxford University Press.Richards, J.C. & Renandya, W.A. (eds.) (2002). Methodology in language teaching: an anthology of current practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Slagoski, J.D. (2006). Teaching Listening Skills. Senior ELF Seminar given in Samara, Russia. Retrieved from .