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**Distance and Displacement**

Chapter 11.1

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**Key Concepts and Vocabulary**

What is needed to describe motion completely? How are distance and displacement different? How do you add displacements? Vocabulary: Frame of Reference Relative Motion Distance Vector Resultant Vector

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**Distance Length of a path between two points.**

Units: kilometers, meters, centimeters

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Displacement Direction from the starting point and the length of a straight line from the starting point to the ending point.

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**Displacement Along A Straight Line**

20km 30km 15km 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Displacement = 20 km + 30 km + 15 km = 65 km east -10km 30km 30km 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Displacement = 40 km km + 40 km = 70 km east

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**Vector Vector is a quantity that has magnitude and direction**

12 km northwest Magnitude – size, length, or amount Length of arrows shows the magnitude

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**Vector Addition Problems**

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**Displacement That Isn’t Along a Straight Line**

When two or more displacement vectors have different directions, they can be combined by graphing.

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**Based on the red arrows, how far did Mrs. Ewald walk?**

Add the magnitudes of each vector along the path. 2 long blocks south 2 short blocks east 1 long block south 3 short blocks east Total = 8 blocks or 11 short blocks Path walked by Mrs. Ewald 1 long block = 2 short blocks

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**Based on the red arrows, how far did Mrs. Ewald walk?**

The vector in yellow is the resultant vector – vector sum of two or more vectors. Points directly from start to finish. Resultant vector = 8 short blocks Path walked by Mrs. Ewald

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**Question? Mrs. Ewald walks 4m east, 2m south, 4m west, and 2m north.**

What is the total distance Mrs. Ewald walked? What is the total displacement? 4m + 2m + 4m + 2m = 12m Displacement = 0m 2m 4m

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Speed and Velocity Chapter 11.2

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**Key Concepts and Vocabulary**

How is instant speed and average speed different? How are speed and velocity different? Vocabulary: Speed Average Speed Instantaneous Speed Velocity

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Speed Ratio of the distance an object moves to the amount of time the object moves. Equations:

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Velocity The speed and direction an object is moving relative to a reference point. Equations:

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Example A car travels 85 km from Town A to Town B, then 45 km from Town B to Town C. The total trip took 1.5 hours. What was the average speed of the car?

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Example A bicyclist travels for 1.5 hours at an average speed of 32 km/h. How far does the bicyclist travel in that time?

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Example A person jogs 4.0 kilometers in 32 minutes, then 2.0 kilometers in 22 minutes, and finally 1.0 kilometers in 16 minutes. What is the joggers average speed in kilometers per minute?

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Example A train travels 190 kilometers in 3.0 hours, and then 120 kilometers in 2.0 hours. What is its average speed?

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Acceleration Chapter 11.3

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**Key Concepts and Vocabulary**

How are changes in velocities described? How can you calculate acceleration? Vocabulary: Acceleration Free Fall

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Acceleration A vector described as a changes in speed, changes in direction, or changes in both. Change in Speed Free fall (9.8 m/s2) Change in Direction Riding a merry-go-round Changes in Speed and Direction Speeding up around a corner

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**Calculating Acceleration**

Equation: Acceleration = Change in Velocity Time Acceleration = Velocityfinal – Velocityinitial a = vf – vi t Unit of Measure: m/s2, km/s2

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Example A car travelling at 10 m/s starts to slow down steadily. It comes to a complete stop in 20 seconds. What is its acceleration?

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Example An airplane travels down a runway for 4.0 seconds, with an acceleration of 9.0 m/s2. What is its change in velocity during this time?

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Example A child drops a ball from a bridge. The ball strikes the water under the bridge 2.0 seconds later. What is the velocity of the ball when it strikes the water?

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Example A boy throws a rock straight up into the air. It reaches the highest point of its flight after 2.5 seconds. How fast was the rock going when it left the boys hand?

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