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Human Genetic disorders

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Presentation on theme: "Human Genetic disorders"— Presentation transcript:

1 Human Genetic disorders
A look into a few different types

2 About Human Genetic Disorders
Any illness caused by abnormalities in genes or chromosomes Most are rare May or may not be heritable

3 Broad Types of Genetic Disorders
Single Gene Disorder – result of a single mutated gene. X-Linked Dominant – mutations on genes of the X chromosme Men and women are equally likely to get it Rett Syndorme (degenerative brain disorder) Fragile X X-Linked Recessive – again, mutations on the genes of the X chromosome Males way more likely to get these than women Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Hemophilia Y-Linked – mutations in genes on the Y chromosome ALL males will have these disorders Rare since the Y chromosome is small

4 Autosomal dominant – only one mutated copy of the gene is needed
Marfan Syndrome Huntington’s Disease Retinoblastoma Autosomal recessive – two mutated copies of the gene are needed to be affected Sickle cell anemia Cystic fibrosis Tay-Sachs

5 Insight to a few human genetic disorders
Let’s take a look Insight to a few human genetic disorders

6 Achondroplasia Mutation in a gene on chromosome #4 that makes a protein that is involved in converting cartilage to bone A form of dwarfism In MOST cases is it NOT inherited but in rare cases that it is, it is autosomal dominant

7 Achondroplasia Occurs in 1 in ever 15,000-40,000 live births
Often these children are born to normal sized parents Not fatal No treatment but monitoring of height, weight, and head circumference.

8 Achondroplasia Symptoms: Abnormal bone growth
Short stature with disproportionately short arms and legs Short fingers Large head Prominent forehead Bowed legs Weak muscles Causes delays in walking and other motor skills


10 Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy
A disease characterized by progressive loss of muscle function and weakness beginning in the lower limbs. A sex-linked recessive disorder – body does not make the muscle protein dystrophin Occurs mostly in boys Affects 1 in 3500 births

11 Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy
Symptoms (appear between ages 1-6): Delays in motor skill milestones like sitting or walking Progressive muscle weakness in the legs and pelvic muscles Loss of muscle mass Abnormal bone development By age 10, leg braces are required for walking By age 12, confinement to a wheelchair In the early teens, complications due to an enlarged heart appear and few individuals live past their 30’s/


13 Turner’s Syndrome A disease characterized by females having only ONE X-Chromosome instead of two The second X-Chromosome may be entirely missing or severely mutated Causes delays in the development of females

14 Turner Syndrome Occurs in 1 in ever 2500 births but is more common in non-surviving pregnancies This is NOT an inherited disorder, it is due to nondisjunction during meiosis – chromosomes do not separate properly

15 Turner Syndrome Symptoms Extra skin on neck Short stature
Swelling of hands and feet Skeletal abnormalities Heart defects Developmental delays Most females with this disease are infertile and do not go through puberty unless they are given hormones


17 Cri-du-Chat Part of chromosome #5 is missing. The more genes missing, the more severe the symptoms Characterized by infants with this syndrome having a high pitched cry that sounds like that of a cat Occurs in 1 in every 20,000 – 50,000 births NOT in inherited disorder

18 Cri-du-Chat Delayed development Small head size Low birth weight
Weak muscle tone in infants Low set ears Widely set eyes Small jaw Round face Possibility of heart defects


20 Huntington’s Disease An autosomal dominant disorder caused by a CAG repeat on chromosome #4. Normally this gene should have repeats but people with HD have between The more repeats, the more likely your symptoms will start earlier and be more severe. IS an inherited disorder. If one of your parents has it you have a 50% chance of getting it.

21 Huntington’s Disease Most common form begins in adults in their mid ’s. Symptoms Behavior changes Hallucinations Moodiness Paranoia Psychosis

22 Huntington’s Disease Symptoms Dementia Abnormal or Unusual Movements
Disorientation or confusion Loss of memory Loss of judgement Personality changes Abnormal or Unusual Movements Jerky, sudden movements of the limbs Slow, uncontrolled movements Unsteady walk

23 Huntington’s Disease Can use a neurological exam, MRI, or genetic exam to detect symptoms Eventually for a person with HD, 24 care will be needed and death occurs years after the symptoms first present themselves There is no treatment, it is 100% fatal however many different medications can be prescribed to treat the symptoms Antipsychotics Dopamine blockers



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