Presentation on theme: "Report of the National Reading Panel TEACHING CHILDREN TO READ: An Evidence-Based Assessment of the Scientific Research Literature on Reading and Its."— Presentation transcript:
Report of the National Reading Panel TEACHING CHILDREN TO READ: An Evidence-Based Assessment of the Scientific Research Literature on Reading and Its Implications for Reading Instruction TEACHING CHILDREN TO READ: An Evidence-Based Assessment of the Scientific Research Literature on Reading and Its Implications for Reading Instruction
In 1997, congress asked The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) to work with the in establishing a National Reading Panel that would evaluate existing research and evidence to find the best ways of teaching children to read. The 14-member panel considered roughly 100,000 reading studies published since 1966, and another 15,000 published before that time; from this pool, the panel selected several hundred studies for its review and analysis. In 1997, congress asked The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) to work with the U.S. Department of Education in establishing a National Reading Panel that would evaluate existing research and evidence to find the best ways of teaching children to read. The 14-member panel considered roughly 100,000 reading studies published since 1966, and another 15,000 published before that time; from this pool, the panel selected several hundred studies for its review and analysis.National Reading PanelU.S. Department of EducationNational Reading Panel
The National Reading Panel The National Reading Panel (NRP) issued a report in 2000 that responded to a Congressional mandate to help parents, teachers and policymakers identify key skills and methods central to reading achievement.
The panel found that a combination of techniques is effective for teaching children to read. Reading instruction should include these five areas: 1.Phonemic awareness 2.Phonics 3.Fluency 4.Vocabulary Instruction 5.Text Comprehension
Phonemic awareness Phonemic Awareness is the knowledge that spoken words can be broken apart into smaller segments of sound known as phonemes. Children who are read to at home—especially material that rhymes—often develop the basis of phonemic awareness. Children who are not read to will probably need to be taught that words can be broken apart into smaller sounds.
Why Phonemic Awareness? Phonemic Awareness improves children’s word reading and reading comprehension. It, also, helps children learn to spell.
Phonemic Awareness Provide explicit and systematic instruction focusing on only one or two phonemic awareness skills, such as segmenting and blending Link sounds to letters as soon as possible Use systematic classroom- based instructional assessment to inform instruction What Students Need to LearnHow We Teach It That spoken words consist of individual sounds or phonemes How words can be segmented (pulled apart) into sounds, and how these sounds can be blended (put back together) and manipulated (added, deleted, and substituted) How to use their phonemic awareness to blend sounds to read words and to segment sounds in words to spell them
Phonemic awareness instruction is more effective when children are taught to use letters to represent phonemes and to apply their knowledge of phonemic awareness when reading and writing Explicit phonemic awareness instruction helps all beginning readers, including those having reading difficulties and English language learners Explicit phonemic awareness instruction helps preschoolers, kindergartners, and 1st graders (including English language learners) learn to spell Research Evidence (National Reading Panel, 2000)
Phonics Phonics is the knowledge that letters of the alphabet represent phonemes, and that these sounds are blended together to form written words. Readers who are skilled in phonics can sound out words they haven't seen before, without first having to memorize them.
Why Phonics? Phonics leads to an understanding of the alphabetic principle – the systematic and predictable relationships between written letters and spoken sounds.
Phonics and Word Study Accurate and rapid identification of the letters of the alphabet The alphabetic principle (an understanding that the sequence of sounds or phonemes in a spoken word are represented by letters in a written word) Phonics elements (e.g., letter- sound correspondences, spelling patterns, syllables, and meaningful word parts) How to apply phonics elements as they read and write Provide explicit, systematic phonics instruction that teaches a set of letter-sound relations Provide explicit instruction in blending sounds to read words Include practice in reading texts that are written for students to use their phonics knowledge to decode and read words Give substantial practice for children to apply phonics as they spell words Use systematic classroom-based instructional assessment to inform instruction What Students Need to Learn How We Teach It
Explicit, systematic phonics is significantly more effective than alternative programs that provide unsystematic or no phonics instruction Explicit, systematic phonics is significantly more effective with children of different ages, abilities, and SES backgrounds Phonics instruction improves word reading skills and text comprehension, especially for kindergartners, first graders, and older struggling readers Research Evidence (National Reading Panel, 2000)
Fluency Fluency is the ability to recognize words easily, read with greater speed, accuracy, and expression, and to better understand what is read. Children gain fluency by practicing reading until the process becomes automatic; guided oral repeated reading is one approach to helping children become fluent readers.
Why Fluency? Fluency provides a bridge between word recognition and comprehension. Fluent readers can focus their attention on what the text means.
Fluency How to decode words (in isolation and in connected text) How to automatically recognize words (accurately and quickly with little attention or effort) How to increase speed (or rate) of reading while maintaining accuracy Provide opportunities for guided oral repeated reading that includes support and feedback from teachers, peers, and/or parents Match reading texts and instruction to individual students Apply systematic classroom- based instructional assessment to monitor student progress in both rate and accuracy What Students Need to Learn How We Teach It
Repeated reading procedures that offer guidance and feedback are effective for improving word recognition, fluency, comprehension, and overall reading achievement through Grade 5 (National Reading Panel, 2000) Research Evidence
Vocabulary Instruction Vocabulary instruction is teaching new words, either as they appear in text, or by introducing new words separately. This type of instruction also aids reading ability.
Why Vocabulary Instruction? Beginning readers use their oral vocabulary to make sense of the words they see in print. Readers must know what most of the words mean before they can understand what they are reading.
Vocabulary The meanings for most of the words in a text so they can understand what they read How to apply a variety of strategies to learn word meanings How to make connections between words and concepts How to accurately use “new” words in oral and written language Provide opportunities for students to receive direct, explicit instruction in the meanings of words and in word learning strategies Provide many opportunities for students to read in and out of school Engage children in daily interactions that promote using new vocabulary in both oral and written language Enrich and expand the vocabulary knowledge of English language learners Actively involve students in making connections between concepts and words What Students Need to Learn How We Teach It
Knowledge of word meanings (vocabulary) is critical to reading comprehension (Learning First Alliance, 2000; National Reading Panel, 2000) Research Evidence Words are typically learned from repeated encounters, rather than from a single context or encounter (Beck & McKeown, 1991)
Text Comprehension Instruction Reading comprehension strategies are techniques for helping individuals to understand what they read. Such techniques involve having students summarize what they've read, to gain a better understanding of the material.
Why Text Comprehension Instruction? Comprehension is the reason for reading. If readers can read the words but do not understand what they are reading, they are not really reading. Text comprehension is purposeful and active.
Text Comprehension How to read both narrative and expository texts How to understand and remember what they read How to relate their own knowledge or experiences to text How to use comprehension strategies to improve their comprehension How to communicate with others about what they read Explicitly explain, model, and teach comprehension strategies, such as previewing and summarizing text Provide comprehension instruction before, during, and after reading narrative and expository texts Promote thinking and extended discourse by asking questions and encouraging student questions and discussions Provide extended opportunities for English language learners to participate Use systematic classroom-based instructional assessment to inform instruction What Students Need to LearnHow We Teach It
Instruction of comprehension strategies improves reading comprehension of children with a wide range of abilities (National Reading Panel, 2000) Research Evidence Many children require explicit word recognition instruction integrated with rapid processing of words, spelling skills, and strategies to improve comprehension (Fletcher & Lyon, 1998)
No Child Left Behind The panel's findings, released in April 2000, and other reading research, provided the basis for the No Child Left Behind Act, which was signed by the President in December 2001. The Act calls upon states to set basic reading standards for local school systems, and to test students to assure they have met those standards. No Child Left Behind ActNo Child Left Behind Act
References Put Reading First www.nifl.govPut Reading First www.nifl.govwww.nifl.gov http://www.nifl.gov/partnershipforreading/ presentations/powerpoints/effectiveinstru ction.ppt#18http://www.nifl.gov/partnershipforreading/ presentations/powerpoints/effectiveinstru ction.ppt#18