Presentation on theme: "The Family Preview Section 1: The Family in Cross-Cultural Perspective"— Presentation transcript:
1 The Family Preview Section 1: The Family in Cross-Cultural Perspective Sociology4/19/2017The FamilyPreviewSection 1: The Family in Cross-Cultural PerspectiveSection 2: The American FamilyChapter Wrap-UpChapter 12
2 Section 1: The Family in Cross-Cultural Perspective Read to DiscoverWhat are the norms that influence the ways in which marriage patterns are organized around the world?What are the basic societal needs that the institution of the family satisfies?
3 Section 1: The Family in Cross-Cultural Perspective QuestionWhat norms are related to marriage partner, residential, descent, and authority patterns?
4 Section 1: The Family in Cross-Cultural Perspective Marriage-Partner PatternsResidential PatternsDescent PatternsAuthority Patterns monogamy polygamy polygyny polyandry patrilineal descent matrilineal descent bilateral descent patrilocality matrilocality bilocality neolocality patriarchy matriarchy egalitarian
5 Section 1: The Family in Cross-Cultural Perspective Number of marriage partners—in industrialized nations marriages are usually monogamous, whereas in pre-industrial societies the normal pattern is polygyny (multiple wives)Residential Patterns—once individuals are married they must decide where to live: patrilocal, near the husband’s parents; matrilocal, near the wife’s parents; bilocal, near one or the other; or neolocal, apart from both sets of parents
6 Section 1: The Family in Cross-Cultural Perspective Descent Patterns—in some societies people trace kinship through the father’s side of the family (patrilineal); in others descent is traced through the mother’s side of the family (matrilineal) or through both parents (bilateral)Authority Patterns—the three basic types are patriarchy (father holds the authority), matriarchy (mother holds the authority), and egalitarian (mother and father share the authority)
7 Section 1: The Family in Cross-Cultural Perspective QuestionWhat are the basic societal needs that the institution of the family satisfies?
8 Section 1: The Family in Cross-Cultural Perspective Regulation of sexual activity—enforce incest taboo which is a norm forbidding sexual relations or marriage between certain relativesReproduction—societies establish norms governing childbearing and child rearing, to replace members who die or move away
9 Section 1: The Family in Cross-Cultural Perspective Socialization—children must be taught the ways of the society into which they are bornEconomic and Emotional Security—family acts as the basic economic unit in society and, in most cases, labor is divided on the basis of gender and age; family also guides emotional and psychological development, and should provide a loving and caring environment
10 Section 2: The American Family Read to DiscoverHow do American families begin and what disruptions might they face?What are trends in American family life currently being examined by sociologists?
11 Section 2: The American Family Beginnings of the American Family and DisruptionsMarriage begins with courtship and marriage between either homogamous (similar social characteristics) or heterogamous (different social characteristics) couplesDisruptions include family violence, divorce, empty nest, return of adult children, and death of a spouse
12 Section 2: The American Family Sociology4/19/2017Section 2: The American FamilyQuestionWhat trends exist in American family life?Chapter 12
13 Section 2: The American Family Delayed ChildbearingDelayed MarriageTrends in American Family LifeChildlessnessRemarriageDual-earner FamiliesOne-parent Families
14 Section 2: The American Family Delayed Marriages—current trend is to marry later in life; being single has become an acceptable alternative to being marriedDelayed Childbearing—women are delaying childbirth to complete their education and establish a careerChildlessness—couples are making the conscious choice to remain voluntarily childless
15 Section 2: The American Family Dual-Earner Marriages—increase in the number of dual-earner marriages due to the increased number of women entering the workforceOne-Parent Families—come about in various ways such as divorce, death of a spouse, births to unwed mothers, or adoption by unmarried individualsRemarriage—the majority of people who get divorced—about 75 percent—get remarried
16 Chapter Wrap-Up Understanding Main Ideas How are families structured around the world?What four basic questions help to determine how a society or group within a society organizes families?What functions does the family fulfill?How do sociologists explain the high rate of divorce in the United States?Why has the number of married women in the workforce increased?