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Simplifying Exponential Expressions

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Exponential Notation Base Exponent Base raised to an exponent Example: What is the base and exponent of the following expression? 2 is the exponent 7 is the base

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Goal To write simplified statements that contain distinct bases, one whole number in the numerator and one in the denominator, and no negative exponents. Ex:

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Multiplying Terms When we are multiplying terms, it is easiest to break the problem down into steps. First multiply the number parts of all the terms together. Then multiply the variable parts together. Examples: a. ( 4x )( -5x ) = ( 4. -5 )( x. x ) = -20x 2 b. (5z2)(3z)(4y) = (5. 2. 3. 4)(y. z. z) = 120yz 2 Only the z is squared

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Exploration Evaluate the following without a calculator: 3 4 = 3 3 = 3 2 = 3 1 = Describe a pattern and find the answer for: 3 0 = 81 27 9 3 1 ÷ 3

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Zero Power Anything to the zero power is one Can “a” equal zero? a 0 = 1 No. You can’t divide by 0.

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Exploration Simplify: Use the definition of exponents to expand There are 7 “x” variables Notice (from the initial expression) 3+4 is 7!

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Product of a Power If you multiply powers having the same base, add the exponents.

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Example Simplify: Add the exponents since the bases are the same Anything raised to the 0 power is 1

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Practice Simplify the following expressions:

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Exploration Simplify: Use the definition of exponents to expand The Product of a Power Rule says to add all the 3s Adding 3 five times is equivalent to multiplying 3 by 5. The same exponents from the initial expression!

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Power of a Power To find a power of a power, multiply the exponents.

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Example Simplify: Multiply the powers of a exponent raised to another power Any base without a power, is assumed to have an exponent of 1 Multiply numbers without exponents and add the exponents when the bases are the same

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Practice Simplify the following expressions:

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Exploration Simplify: Use the definition of exponents to expand The Product of a Power Rule says to add the exponents with the same bases Adding 2 five times is equivalent to multiplying 2 by 5 Notice: Both the z 2 and x were raised to the 5 th power!

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Power of a Product If a base has a product, raise each factor to the power

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Example Simplify: Everything inside the parentheses is raised to the exponent outside the parentheses Multiply numbers without exponents and add the exponents when the bases are the same Multiply the powers of a exponent raised to another power

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Practice Simplify the following expressions:

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First Four 1. 125x 3 9. -15a 5 b 5 16. 64x 11 2. 64d 6 10. r 8 s 12 17. 256x 12 3. a 7 b 7 c11. 36z 11 18. 9a 8 4. 64m 6 n 6 12. 18x 5 19. 729z 10 5. 100x 2 y 2 13. 4x 9 20. 321 6. -r 5 s 5 t 5 14. a 4 b 4 c 6 21. 108a 11 7. 27b 4 15. 125y 12 22. -81x 17 8. -4x 7

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Exploration 5 3125 5454 625 5353 125 5252 25 5151 5 5050 1 5 -1 5 -2 5 -3 5 -4 1/32 1/16 1/8 ¼ ½ 1 1/5 1/25 1/125 1/625 2 4 8 16 Complete the tables (with fractions) by finding the pattern. ÷ 5 x 2

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Negative Powers A simplified expression has no negative exponents. Negative Exponents “flip” and become positive

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Example Simplify: All of the old rules still apply for negative exponents This is not simplified since there is a negative exponent Flip ONLY the thing with the negative exponent to the bottom and the exponent becomes positive

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Example Simplify: Everything with a positive exponent stays where it is. Since all of the negative exponents are gone, apply all of the old rules to simplify. Everything with a negative exponent is flipped and exponent becomes positive.

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Practice Simplify the following expressions:

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Exploration Simplify: Use the definition of exponents to expand Since everything is multiplied, you can cancel common factors The 6 “x”s in the denominator cancel 6 out of the 10 “x”s in the numerator. This is the same as subtracting the exponents from the initial expression! Only 4 “x”s remain in the numerator

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Quotient of a Power To find a quotient of a power, subtract the denominator’s exponent from the numerator’s exponent if the bases are the same.

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Example Simplify: Divide the base numbers first Subtract the exponents of the similar bases since there is division Not simplified since there is a negative exponents Flip any negative exponents

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Practice Simplify the following expressions:

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Exploration Simplify: Use the definition of exponents to expand Multiply the fractions Use the definition of exponents to rewrite. Notice: Both the numerator and denominator were raised to the 6 th power!

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To find a power of a quotient, raise the denominator and numerator to the same power. Power of a Quotient

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Example Simplify: Everything in the fraction is raised to the power out side the parentheses. Multiply the fractions Subtract the exponents when there is division, and add when there is multiplication

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Practice Simplify the following expressions:

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