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Elements of Dam Engineering

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1 Elements of Dam Engineering
Module-I Elements of Dam Engineering Hoover Dam, USA Colorado river Three Gorges Dam China, Yangtze river

2 Elements of Dam Engineering
Classification of Dam -Earth Dam -Concrete or Gravity Dam - Gravity - Arch dam - Buttress dam - Factors for site sel. Dam - Factor for sel. Type of dam Spillway -Types - Spillway gates

3 Dam: A dam is an impervious structure constructed across river and
which store the water at U/S. Or A structure built across a River, Stream, and Tributaries for storing water at its upstream side and create a reservoir by help of major axis is called hydraulic structure for Storage such as Dam.

4 Classification of Dam Based on their use i) Storage Dam ii) Diversion Dam iii) Detention Dam

5 2) Based on Hydraulic Design
i) Over Flow Dam ii) Non-Over Flow Dam

6 3) Based on Structural Design
Gravity Dam Arch Dam Buttress Dam Embankment Dam

7 4) Based on the material used
i) Rigid Dam ii) Non- Rigid DAM

8 Concrete Dam or Gravity Dam
It is categorized as rigid dam because it made by the rigid material

9 Embankment Dam It is most ancient type of dams that can be built by naturally available materials. 1) Earth Dam i) Homogeneous type

10 ii) Zoned type

11 ii) Diaphragm type

12 2) Rock fill Dam

13 3) Combined Earth & Rock fill Dam

14 Concrete Dam or Gravity Dam
It is categorized as rigid dam because it made by the rigid material

15 Advantages of Gravity Dam:
Strong & Stable Overflow spillway, Pass flood Any height Not sudden failure Suitable at heavy downpore Less maintenance cost Disadvantages of Gravity Dam: Sound rock foundation Higher cost Skill labour & Mechanics Diff. to rise the height latter More time to construction

16 Arch Dam It is curved concrete dam

17 Advantages of Arc Dam: Suitable deep gorges & Length small Built on moderate/weak foundation Thickness less than height Less cost compare gravity dam Disadvantages of Arc Dam: Skill labour & Mechanics cost Construction time large Strong abutment Not Suit if solid rock not available

18 Buttress Dam Buttress dam consists of a continuous inclined U/S face supported by D/S buttress at regular interval

19 Advantages of Buttress Dam:
Less materials Week foundation Buttress support again overturning & sliding Disadvantages of Buttress Dam: More form work Constant maintenance and supervision Life less

20 Selection of site for a Dam
Foundation Topography Reservoir Catchment Area Spillway Construction Material Communication Environmental Condition

21 Factor governing the selection of type of dam
Topography - V Shape - U Shape 2) Geology and Foundation Condition -Solid Rock -Gravel - Silt & Fine Sand - Clay - Non-Uniform 3) Availability of materials for Construction 4) Spillway size and location 5) Roadway 6)Length and height of dam 7) Life of the dam 8) Earthquake

22 Spillway Spillways are important auxiliary works of dam, provided to dispose the surplus water from the dam which can not store in the dam otherwise it may overtroped

23 Location of Spillway A spillway is located either within the body or totally away from the main dam as independent structure

24 Requirements of a Spillway
Sufficient capacity Safe disposal of water Hydraulically and structure sufficient Hard bound surface Spillway should accompanied by energy dissipation work

25 Component part of Spillway
Control Structure Discharge Channel Energy Dissipaters Entrance and outlet channels

26 Types of Spillway Free overflow and straight drop spillway

27 2) Ogee or overflow spillway

28 3) Chute or Open channel or through Spillway

29 4) Side channel Spillway

30 5) Siphon spillway

31 Energy Dissipation Below Spillway
1) Hydraulic Jump

32 2) Ski jump bucket

33 Spillway Crest Gates 1) Dropping Shutters or Flash boards

34 2) Radial gauge or Tainter gates

35 3) Drum gate

36 Prepared by, Dr. Dhruvesh Patel
Source: Sincere thanks to Mahajan Publishing house for photographs and supplement materials.

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