Presentation on theme: "Pad Foundation Lectured by: Ms. Noorhidayah Sunarti"— Presentation transcript:
1 Pad Foundation Lectured by: Ms. Noorhidayah Sunarti School of Quantity surveying & Construction Management
2 What is Foundation?Foundation is the element of a structure that serves to support the loads super-imposed to it through the transmitting elements (such as columns).
3 FunctionsPrevent settlement (including differential settlement) of a structurePrevent possible movement of structure due to periodic shrinkage and swelling of subsoilAllow building over water or water-logged groundResist uplifting or overturning forces due to windResist lateral forces due to soil movementUnderpin (support) existing or unstable structures
4 Classification of Foundation Foundation in general can be classified into a number of ways, such as:1. Simple, Shallow and Deep foundation2. Pad/strip type and piled foundation
7 Shallow foundationThis type of foundation usually refers to those being rested on stratum with adequate bearing capacity and laid less than 3m below ground level.Common examples include pad, strip or raft foundations.A combination of two or three type of shallow foundation in one single structure is not uncommon.
9 Raft FoundationRaft foundation is a large combined thick slab designed to seat and support the whole or a large part of a structure.A raft is usually used when subsoil is weak, or columns are closely located and with deviated loadings.It also serves as a transfer slab to combine and tie up all the vertical loading elements to the plate-form foundation. By doing so, differential settlement can be avoided.
12 MEASUREMENT PRINCIPLES ELEMENT: PAD FOUNDATION **refer to drawings – plan , section viewComponents:Reinforced foundation base / concrete padColumn stump
13 TAKING-OFF LISTS (items to be measured) Reinforced foundation base / concrete padConcreting worksReinforced concrete Grade __ in concrete pad / foundation base. (m3)Lean Concrete blinding Grade _ under concrete pad / foundation base. (m2)FormworkSawn formwork to sides of concrete pad / foundation base. (m2)Reinforcement works (not available in this task)High tensile reinforcement bar in concrete pad (kg/m)Mild steel reinforcement bar in concrete pad (kg/m)
14 Plan of Pad Foundation 300mm 1250mm Nos. of foundation base = 4 nos. Nos. of column stump = 4 nos.
15 Section of pad foundation G.LColumn stump750mm6R8-2254Y20Reinforced concrete pad300mm25mm Thick lean concrete
16 TAKING-OFF LISTS (items to be measured) Reinforced column stumpConcreting worksReinforced concrete Grade _ in column stump (m3)FormworkSawn formwork to sides of column stump (m2)Reinforcement works (not available in this task)High tensile reinforcement bar in column stump (kg/m)Mild steel reinforcement bar in column stump (kg /m)
17 Piled foundationPiled foundation is a form of foundation using piles to transfer the loads of a structure down to a firm soil stratum with sufficient load-taking capacity.Materials for the piles can be of:TimberPre cast concrete (sometimes also pre-stressed)In-situ reinforced concretesteel piles in ‘H’ or circular section
20 Classification of Piled Foundation Piled Foundation can be classified into:1.End Bearing pile or Friction pile (or of combined nature)2.Piles formed by manual or mechanical methods3.Percussion Piles (driven by hammer) or Non-percussion Piles (form by augering, boring or drilling)4.Displacement or replacement piles