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The Cognitive Domain Chapter 11.

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Presentation on theme: "The Cognitive Domain Chapter 11."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Cognitive Domain Chapter 11

2 http://www. zerotothree. org/site/PageServer

3 Logical Mathematical knowledge
Relations between objects, and phenomena deriving from observation Developing a logical organization to deal more effectively with incoming knowledge including matching, classifying, patterning, seriating, numbering, using space, topological, inclusion, exclusion and time

4 Physical Knowledge Observable attributes of objects and physical phenomena: size, color, shape, weight, texture, tendencies under varying conditions,

5 Representational Knowledge
Imaginative expression of symbolic thought that represents the child’s mental world Manipulation of images art, symbols, and language to stand for objects, events and concepts Competence in restructuring an experience in another way through symbolic representation

6 Social conventional knowledge
Cultural and social conventions, rules and viewpoints transmitted to children by family, society, school and peers to guide behavior related to other individuals, institution and the use of goods and services,

7 Metacognition Proficient strategies for monitoring your thinking processes Development of skills needed for critical and fair thinking, mental flexibility, organization of their ideas and application of the many essential components of learning.

8 Emphasis of Cognitive Domain
Skill based planning that helps children develop main cognitive and psychomotor skills, language skills, and process thinking skills. These skills help children CONSTRUCT their own knowledge!!!!

9 Counting Principles One to one principle Stable order principle
Cardinal principal Abstraction principle Order irrelevance principle

10 One to One Principle Using one and only one number name for each item counted

11 Stable Order Principle
Using the number names in a stable order, such as “one, two, three..” even though the order may be unconventional such as ‘six, eleven, thirteen”

12 The cardinal Principle
Using the last number name spoken to describe the number of objects in the set, “one, two, three” three snakes

13 The Abstraction Principle
Counting part of a mixed set of items, for example counting the red blocks in a building made of multicolored blocks

14 The Order Irrelevance Principle
Recognizing the a the order in which objects is irrelevant, Six balls are always six no matter which one you count first.

15 Teaching Strategies Encourage intellectual autonomy when expanding children’s general cognitive skills.

16 Develop children’s ability to move out of a comfort zone with respect to inaccurate concepts
Hypothetical thinking Reversal Application of different symbol systems Analogy Analysis of point of view Completion Use of graphic organizers

17 Place more emphasis on children's understanding of the concepts than on rote learning

18 Integrate science and mathematical concepts and skills throughout all areas of the early childhood curriculum

19 Extend children’s science and mathematical vocabulary

20 Use everyday experiences in the classroom to help children connect science and mathematics to daily living and see it as useful and necessary

21 Develop positive learning attitudes and practices in the classroom

22 Use collections as a way to extend and assess children’s ability to categorize, classify and display information.

23 Advantages of the interest based curriculum
Interests the children Learning is generally hands on Learning is generally concrete in nature

24 Disadvantages No accountability No cohesive nature of the curriculum
No connection between units for the children No direction in what is learned

25 Disadvantages: No checks and balances to assess learning
No advance planning No opportunity to expand on what is being learned

26 Horizontal Planning is:
Place to begin and gather ideas Provides a time line for the program year Individual themes provide consecutive guideposts or milestones through out the year.

27 Theme selection needs to consider:
Relevancy for the individual children in the program Preferences of the children Preferences of the teachers Preferences of the program Purposes of the program Cultural and family backgrounds of the children

28 Horizontal Plan Outline
Clearly shows primary, secondary and sub-themes Thematic units can easily be changed to match children’s needs and interests. New webbing resulting from children’s interests can easily be incorporated.

29 Horizontal Plan Outline
No dates or weeks for themes are rigidly set in stone: time frames are flexible

30 Horizontal Plan Outline
Seeing the entire horizontal plan helps the teacher in advance planning of visitors and field trips, and in gathering particular items that may enrich the thematic unit.

31 Problem Solving Learning Experiences
Observing Describing Measuring Experimenting Comparing Counting Evaluating

32 Elements Matching Grouping Pairing Ordering Cause and Effect

33 Management System is Needed
Children do not simply gain mastery of all skills simply by working with appropriate materials and activities each day. This is especially true for the ADD children, children with fetal alcohol syndrome, and some stressed children.

34 Reasons for Management System
The preferences of children making choice during free choice time. Where do the children spend most of their time? Areas they are successful in or areas they need some extra work in Generally we see children avoid the activities they do not care for or are initially successful in.

35 Reason #2 Are there enough opportunities for each individual child to work in each area as needed? Very true when there is a low teacher child ratio, and all of the children are well behaved and there are no behavior problems to deal with. Is there time in the day to make sure this gets done or are there so many other activities?

36 Reason #3 Diverse developmental and experiential levels of the children entering the program. Rise in Learning and Behavior Disabilities Rise in children from divorced families Rise of children from unstable families Child Abuse Drug and Alcohol use

37 Goal of Management System
Ensure that all basic skills are covered Practice has occurred throughout the year and in a sequence that promotes learning Practice has been meaningful and has meshed with children’s natural developmental process

38 Skill Focused Activities
Activities that are planned by the teacher in which children use particular materials to practice particular skills. When and in what order do I have children practice these skills? Am I really planning enough practice of each kind of skill activity?

39 Developmentally Sequenced Activities
Those activities that are planned in order to mesh with the ongoing and changing development of children as they grow and learn.

40 Where are these activities found?
We are searching for the “in between points” of the developmental milestones instead of focusing on the milestone itself. This is where the vertical curriculum comes into play.

41 Natural Sequencing Gradual sequencing that occurs without intervention from anyone, and the child masters the skill.

42 Guided Sequencing This development is provided by the teacher with more complicated materials being present on a regular basis. As the children gain skills in each activity, more is added or a more complicated skill is needed for the next activity.

43 Planned Sequencing This occurs when the teacher actually is involved directly with the child to work on an individual skills.

44 Sequenced Skill Focused Planning
Keep in mind that we must go from concrete and real to help the child eventually move to the more abstract in nature.

45 Emphasis The emphasis is on the planning that helps children develop their cognitive and psychomotor skills and helps them in the process of thinking and constructing their own knowledge.

46 Planned Sequencing: perceptual skills
As teachers we need to provide activities where children will first Match Objects that are the same Find Objects that are the same from objects that are not the same Label the object within a variety of other objects, correctly

47 Beyond Match Find and Label
Problem solving skills based on the initial skill of being able to use the information in a new way. For example once the child sorts all the alike objects then he is problem solving and applying his knowledge.

48 Memory Problem solving

49 Elements of Cognitive Curriculum
Conservation Common Relations Visual Discrimination

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