3 Logical Mathematical knowledge Relations between objects, and phenomena deriving from observationDeveloping a logical organization to deal more effectively with incoming knowledge including matching, classifying, patterning, seriating, numbering, using space, topological, inclusion, exclusion and time
4 Physical KnowledgeObservable attributes of objects and physical phenomena: size, color, shape, weight, texture, tendencies under varying conditions,
5 Representational Knowledge Imaginative expression of symbolic thought that represents the child’s mental worldManipulation of images art, symbols, and language to stand for objects, events and conceptsCompetence in restructuring an experience in another way through symbolic representation
6 Social conventional knowledge Cultural and social conventions, rules and viewpoints transmitted to children by family, society, school and peers to guide behavior related to other individuals, institution and the use of goods and services,
7 MetacognitionProficient strategies for monitoring your thinking processesDevelopment of skills needed for critical and fair thinking, mental flexibility, organization of their ideas and application of the many essential components of learning.
8 Emphasis of Cognitive Domain Skill based planning that helps children develop main cognitive and psychomotor skills, language skills, and process thinking skills.These skills help children CONSTRUCT their own knowledge!!!!
9 Counting Principles One to one principle Stable order principle Cardinal principalAbstraction principleOrder irrelevance principle
10 One to One PrincipleUsing one and only one number name for each item counted
11 Stable Order Principle Using the number names in a stable order, such as “one, two, three..” even though the order may be unconventional such as ‘six, eleven, thirteen”
12 The cardinal Principle Using the last number name spoken to describe the number of objects in the set, “one, two, three” three snakes
13 The Abstraction Principle Counting part of a mixed set of items, for example counting the red blocks in a building made of multicolored blocks
14 The Order Irrelevance Principle Recognizing the a the order in which objects is irrelevant, Six balls are always six no matter which one you count first.
15 Teaching StrategiesEncourage intellectual autonomy when expanding children’s general cognitive skills.
16 Develop children’s ability to move out of a comfort zone with respect to inaccurate concepts Hypothetical thinkingReversalApplication of different symbol systemsAnalogyAnalysis of point of viewCompletionUse of graphic organizers
17 Place more emphasis on children's understanding of the concepts than on rote learning
18 Integrate science and mathematical concepts and skills throughout all areas of the early childhood curriculum
19 Extend children’s science and mathematical vocabulary
20 Use everyday experiences in the classroom to help children connect science and mathematics to daily living and see it as useful and necessary
21 Develop positive learning attitudes and practices in the classroom
22 Use collections as a way to extend and assess children’s ability to categorize, classify and display information.
23 Advantages of the interest based curriculum Interests the childrenLearning is generally hands onLearning is generally concrete in nature
24 Disadvantages No accountability No cohesive nature of the curriculum No connection between units for the childrenNo direction in what is learned
25 Disadvantages: No checks and balances to assess learning No advance planningNo opportunity to expand on what is being learned
26 Horizontal Planning is: Place to begin and gather ideasProvides a time line for the program yearIndividual themes provide consecutive guideposts or milestones through out the year.
27 Theme selection needs to consider: Relevancy for the individual children in the programPreferences of the childrenPreferences of the teachersPreferences of the programPurposes of the programCultural and family backgrounds of the children
28 Horizontal Plan Outline Clearly shows primary, secondary and sub-themesThematic units can easily be changed to match children’s needs and interests. New webbing resulting from children’s interests can easily be incorporated.
29 Horizontal Plan Outline No dates or weeks for themes are rigidly set in stone: time frames are flexible
30 Horizontal Plan Outline Seeing the entire horizontal plan helps the teacher in advance planning of visitors and field trips, and in gathering particular items that may enrich the thematic unit.
31 Problem Solving Learning Experiences ObservingDescribingMeasuringExperimentingComparingCountingEvaluating
32 ElementsMatchingGroupingPairingOrderingCause and Effect
33 Management System is Needed Children do not simply gain mastery of all skills simply by working with appropriate materials and activities each day.This is especially true for the ADD children, children with fetal alcohol syndrome, and some stressed children.
34 Reasons for Management System The preferences of children making choice during free choice time.Where do the children spend most of their time? Areas they are successful in or areas they need some extra work inGenerally we see children avoid the activities they do not care for or are initially successful in.
35 Reason #2Are there enough opportunities for each individual child to work in each area as needed?Very true when there is a low teacher child ratio, and all of the children are well behaved and there are no behavior problems to deal with.Is there time in the day to make sure this gets done or are there so many other activities?
36 Reason #3Diverse developmental and experiential levels of the children entering the program.Rise in Learning and Behavior DisabilitiesRise in children from divorced familiesRise of children from unstable familiesChild AbuseDrug and Alcohol use
37 Goal of Management System Ensure that all basic skills are coveredPractice has occurred throughout the year and in a sequence that promotes learningPractice has been meaningful and has meshed with children’s natural developmental process
38 Skill Focused Activities Activities that are planned by the teacher in which children use particular materials to practice particular skills.When and in what order do I have children practice these skills?Am I really planning enough practice of each kind of skill activity?
39 Developmentally Sequenced Activities Those activities that are planned in order to mesh with the ongoing and changing development of children as they grow and learn.
40 Where are these activities found? We are searching for the “in between points” of the developmental milestones instead of focusing on the milestone itself.This is where the vertical curriculum comes into play.
41 Natural SequencingGradual sequencing that occurs without intervention from anyone, and the child masters the skill.
42 Guided SequencingThis development is provided by the teacher with more complicated materials being present on a regular basis. As the children gain skills in each activity, more is added or a more complicated skill is needed for the next activity.
43 Planned SequencingThis occurs when the teacher actually is involved directly with the child to work on an individual skills.
44 Sequenced Skill Focused Planning Keep in mind that we must go from concrete and real to help the child eventually move to the more abstract in nature.
45 EmphasisThe emphasis is on the planning that helps children develop their cognitive and psychomotor skills and helps them in the process of thinking and constructing their own knowledge.
46 Planned Sequencing: perceptual skills As teachers we need to provide activities where children will firstMatch Objects that are the sameFind Objects that are the same from objects that are not the sameLabel the object within a variety of other objects, correctly
47 Beyond Match Find and Label Problem solving skills based on the initial skill of being able to use the information in a new way. For example once the child sorts all the alike objects then he is problem solving and applying his knowledge.