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Importance of Sociology & Psychology to Pharmacy

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Presentation on theme: "Importance of Sociology & Psychology to Pharmacy"— Presentation transcript:

1 Importance of Sociology & Psychology to Pharmacy
Basma Kentab, MSc. September 2014

2 Objectives Demonstrate knowledge & understanding of:
The need to study social and cognitive pharmacy The relationship between social factors and health and illness

3 Introduction A collection of people sharing common traditions, institutions, territories, activities & interests Society The scientific study of society, including the study of development, structure & functioning of human society, and patterns of social relationships, social action & culture Sociology A society is something that exists beyond the individual subject Sociologists are concerned with providing descriptions of social phenomena and trends and analyzing prevailing social problems

4 Introduction Pharmaceutical Sociology (Social Pharmacy)
Concerned with the social institution of pharmacy & society as it relates to patients, medicines, & the work of the pharmacist Pharmaceutical Sociology (Social Pharmacy) Example: pharmacists & independent prescribing

5 Introduction Psychology
The study of the human mind & its functions as it relates to human behavior, cognition (thought) & experience Psychology Sociology concerned with studying groups of people, psychology involves studying people at the level of the individual

6 Introduction Pharmaceutical Psychology
The study of people’s beliefs & behavior in relation to the activities of the modern day pharmacist , from experiences with health promotion & disease diagnosis in the pharmacy to beliefs & behaviors relating to prescribing, review & dispensing of pharmacologically active compounds by pharmacists Pharmaceutical Psychology Example of psychology relation to pharmacy : adherence

7 Introduction Cognitive Pharmacy
Involves pharmacy relevant thoughts & beliefs Cognitive Pharmacy Structured attempts to change patients’ behavior through the practice of pharmacy Cognitive Pharmacy Services

8 Why Study Social & Cognitive Pharmacy??
Limitation of ‘’biology’’ in explaining all health behaviors and outcomes Biomedical Model of Health Focuses on biological factors that influence health & disease Bio-psychosocial Model of Health Acknowledges a complex interaction of biological, psychological & social factors in influencing health & disease Example :depression

9 Why Study Social & Cognitive Pharmacy??
Social & cognitive pharmacy are concerned with the application of psychosocial knowledge to impact on patients’ health & illness-related behavior within the context of practice

10 Relevance of Sociology to Pharmacy
Social factors influence peoples’ health (either in a health-promoting or damaging way) Sociology can help pharmacists gain better understanding of why people experience health differently according to their social, economic or political situations Pharmacists are potentially able to influence the behavior of the patient

11 Relevance of Sociology to Pharmacy
Effective Pharmacist Ability to influence beliefs & behaviors Psychology Sociology Pharmacists are potentially able to influence the behavior of the patient by knowledge of breadth of factors affecting health through sociology & psychology

12 Social Determinants of Health
WHO Definition The conditions in which people are born, grow, live, work and age, including the health system These are shaped by distribution of money, power & resources at global, national & local levels, which are themselves influenced by policy choices Are mostly responsible for health inequities (unfair and avoidable differences in health status )seen within and between countries

13 Social Determinants of Health

14 Social Determinants of Health
Neighborhood conditions& communities Lifetime & generational factors Working conditions Income & wealth Race & racism Education Gender

15 Social Determinants of Health
Neighborhood conditions Water/air quality Housing factors (overcrowding, exposure to dust) Access to food Access to an environment to exercise Quality of local services (transportation, medical care) Social relations (trust & understanding)

16 Social Determinants of Health
Working conditions Physical nature of work Noise levels Exposure to hazardous chemicals Long working hours/shift-work Stressful jobs Earnings & benefits Unemployment

17 Social Determinants of Health
Education Literacy level Employment opportunities Healthier work conditions & higher pay Income & Wealth Increased income associated with better education quality, childhood circumstances, working conditions

18 Social Determinants of Health
Race, Racism Living in an area in accordance to race resulting in neighborhood inadequate resources Long term stress from ethnic bias Stress Can lead to progression or development of disease Can lead to uptake of risky health behaviors

19 Social Determinants of Health
Lifetime & generational factors Childhood experiences Health & wellbeing of pregnant mothers Aging & deteriorating social ties Gender differences Women on average live longer than men Men more involved in risky employment, unhealthy behavior as well as higher stress level

20 Health Outcomes Data Health according to WHO
A state of complete physical, social and mental well-being, and not merely the absence of disease Emphasis on certain prerequisite for health Peace Adequate economic resources Food & shelter Stable eco-system Sustainable resource use This emphasizes the link between social & economic conditions, physical environment, lifestyles and health\ Health outcomes can be used to demonstrate inequalities

21 Health Outcomes Data Health statistics may be expressed based on:
Socioeconomic classification Gender Geographic region Ethnicity Examples of health statistics: Life expectancy Mortality rates Self-reported health

22 Life Expectancy in KSA, 2012 Data (WHO)

23 Mortality Rate in KSA, 2012 Data (WHO)

24 Commonly Investigated Health Behaviors
Smoking Alcohol consumption Obesity Sexual health One of the key recommendations for addressing health inequalities relates to changing these behaviors through psychology

25 References Donyai, Parastou. Social and cognitive pharmacy: theory and case studies. London: Pharmaceutical Press;2012. Chapter 1

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