Presentation on theme: "1 WORKSHOP ON THE PREPARATION OF THE FOURTH NATIONAL COMMUNICATION FROM ANNEX I PARTIES Dublin, 30 September – 1 October 2004 National circumstances in."— Presentation transcript:
1 WORKSHOP ON THE PREPARATION OF THE FOURTH NATIONAL COMMUNICATION FROM ANNEX I PARTIES Dublin, 30 September – 1 October 2004 National circumstances in the Italian Third National Communication under the U.N. framework convention on climate change Mario Contaldi (APAT) Giovanni Perrella (ENEA)
2 STRUCTURE OF THE NATIONAL COMMUNICATION EXECUTIVE SUMMARY NATIONAL CIRCUMSTANCES RELEVANT TO GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS AND REMOVALS GREENHOUSE GAS INVENTORY INFORMATION POLICIES AND MEASURES GLOBAL EMISSION PROJECTIONS AND THE TOTAL EFFECT OF POLICIES AND MEASURES ( for years 2005, 2010, 2015 e 2020) VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT, CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS AND ADAPTATION MEASURES FINANCIAL RESOURCES AND TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH AND SYSTEMATIC OBSERVATION EDUCATION, TRAINING AND PUBLIC AWARENESS
3 National circumstances relevant to greenhouse gas emissions and removals Parties shall provide a description of their national circumstances, how national circumstances affect greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and removals, and how national circumstances and changes in national circumstances affect greenhouse gas emissions and removals over time. Parties should provide information about how their national circumstances are relevant to factors affecting greenhouse gas emissions and removals, including disaggregated indicators, to explain the relationship between national circumstances and emissions or removals. Parties may provide whatever information best describes their own national circumstances and historic trends. However, to improve comparability of national communications, the following headings are recommended:
4 Headings recommended for comparability (a) Government structure: for example, roles and responsibilities of different levels of government; (b) Population profile: for example, total population, density and distribution; (c) Geographic profile: for example, area, latitude, land-use and ecosystems; (d) Climate profile: for example, temperature distribution, annual temperature variations, precipitation distribution, climate variability and extreme events; (e) Economic profile: for example, gross domestic product (GDP), GDP per capita (expressed in domestic currency and purchasing parities), GDP by sector, international trade patterns;
5 Headings reccomended for comparability (f) Energy (by fuel types where appropriate): for example, energy resource base, production, consumption, market structure, prices, taxes, subsidies, trade; (g) Transportation: for example, modes (passenger and freight), travel distances, fleet characteristics; (h) Industry: for example, structure; (i) Waste: for example, waste sources, management practices; (j) Building stock and urban structure: for example, profile of residential and commercial buildings; (k) Agriculture: for example, structure, management practices; (l) Forest: for example, types, management practices; (m) Other circumstances.
6 We will illustrate how Italy has answered at the points: - a), government structure - f), g), h), j), main drivers of emissions
7 Government structure - 1 We have worked out and illustrated the prerogatives of the administrative branches of the central state, the regions (20 of them) and local government bodies. A noteworthy development in all the Italian regions is the widespread delegation of functions to the lower-level local government bodies.
8 Government structure -2 The organization may be rather complex, there is a need to to see the prerogatives in the fields of energy, environment and incentives to business. We have focused our analysis on the achievement of the objectives of reducing climate-altering gases, focusing on branches contributing to the commitment made by the Italian State under the obligations of the European Community and international accords.
9 Main drivers of emissions - With regard to the main drivers of emissions we have presented the actual values and time series of a certain number of indicators, energy efficiency indicators, relative to: MACRO LEVEL INDUSTRY TRANSPORT SERVICES HOUSEHOLDS TRANSFORMATION
10 Since 1990 decrease by 1.8% in the final energy intensity and 4.5% decrease in the primary intensity
11 ENERGY INTENSITIES BY INDUSTRIAL BRANCH Primary metal ( –2.2%/year), non metallic minerals (-0.3%/year) and chemical (-2.4%/year) are decreasing, while the branch equipment, pulp and paper, food and textiles have a little increase
12 RESIDENTIAL ENERGY UNIT CONSUMPTION A relative stability after 1990 around 1.4 toe/dwelling for the total, (1 toe for space heating); decreasing in the unit consumption of –0,23%/year in total and –0,60%/year for heating. Specific uses of electricity increase with an average rate of +1.1%/year (90-99), after a decrease around 1995-98 in 1999 that unit consumption increased more rapidly.
13 For new cars, the test value of the specific consumption has decreased by 1.2 %/years for a total decreasing of 10.2%, between 1990 and 1999. Which means that new cars are longer more efficient every year.
14 Energy Indicators There are of course methodological problems connected with definitions and data collection. Standardized practices of main international bodies should be used. The indicators used in the Italian III NC are drawn from a common databank, ODYSSEE, that is shared on the European level and operated in Italy by ENEA. A common framework from Eurostat is presently being developed
15 Conclusions A detailed description of the structure of a government of a country is needed to individuate the organizations responsible to implement the climate policies Indicators can be helpful to illustrate the national circumstances, allowing to explain specific points at sectorial level With the indicators it is possible to show the sectors in which to act, as well as the type of action to be taken or, on the other side, the mitigation options that no longer can be implemented.