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Lecture-8/ T. Nouf Almujally

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1 Lecture-8/ T. Nouf Almujally
Data Resource Management Section2 “Managing Data Resources” Chapter 5 Lecture-8/ T. Nouf Almujally 1

2 Outline Section 2: Managing Data Resources Data Resource Management
Types of Databases Data Warehouses and Data Mining Traditional File Processing (not required) The Database Management Approach

3 Data Resource Management
Organizations and their managers need to practice Data resource management which is a managerial activity that applies IS’s technologies like data management, data warehousing, and other data management tools to the organization's data resources to meet the information needs of business stakeholders

4 Types of Databases There are several major types of databases:
Operational DB’s. Distributed DB’s. External DB’s. Hypermedia DB’s.

5 Operational Databases
Stores detailed data needed to support businesses and operations of a company Also called subject area databases (SADB), transaction databases, and production databases Database examples: customer, human resource, inventory , and other databases containing data generated by business operations.

6 Operational Databases
Examples of operational DB’s that can be created and managed for a small business by microcomputer database management software like Microsoft Access

7 Distributed Databases
Many organizations replicate and distribute copies or parts of DB’s to network servers at multiple locations. Distributed databases can reside on network servers on the WWW, on corporate intranets or extranets, or on other company networks. Distributed databases may be copies of operational, hypermedia or any other type of database. Ensuring that the data in an organization’s distributed database are consistently and concurrently updated is a major challenge.

8 Distributed Databases
Protection of valuable data (Storage requirement) Data can be distributed into smaller databases Each location has control of its local data All locations can access any data, anywhere improved database performance at end-user worksites Maintaining data accuracy The extra computing power and bandwidth necessary to access multiple DB’s in multiple locations. Advantages Disadvantages

9 External Databases Databases available with or without charge from the WWW, or from commercial online services Hypermedia databases Statistical databases Bibliographic and full-text databases Search engines like Google or Yahoo are external databases

10 Act as a DBMS to manage the transfer of hypermedia files
Hypermedia Databases The rapid growth of web sites on the Internet , intranets and extranets has dramatically increased the use of databases of hypertext and hypermedia documents. A web site stores such information in a  hypermedia database which consists of interrelated hypermedia page multimedia elements (text, graphic and photographic images, video clips, audio segments .. ) rather than interrelated data records Act as a DBMS to manage the transfer of hypermedia files

11 Data warehouses may be divided into data marts
Stores static data that has been extracted from other databases (operational, external ….. ) in an organization It is a central source of data that have been cleaned, transformed, and cataloged Data is used for data mining, analytical processing, , research, decision support Data warehouses may be divided into data marts Hold subsets of data that focus on specific aspects of a company ( Ex. department or process)

12 Data Warehouse Components
1 2 3

13 Applications and Data Marts
A data warehouse and its data mart subsets hold data that have been extracted from various databases for business analysis, market research, decision support, and data mining applications

14 Data Mining Data mining is a major use of data warehouse database and the static data they contain. The Data in data warehouses are analyzed to reveal hidden patterns and trends in historical business activity. This analysis can be used to help managers make decisions about strategic changes in business to gain competitive advantages in the marketplace. Data mining software uses advanced pattern recognition algorithms and a variety of mathematical and statistical techniques

15 Data Mining For example, many companies use data mining to:
Market-basket analysis to identify new product bundles Find root cause of manufacturing problems Acquire new customers Cross-sell to existing customers

16 The Database Management Approach
Consolidates data records held in separate files, into databases Data in the DB can be accessed by many different application programs A database management system (DBMS) is the software interface between users and databases  Database management involves the use of database management software to control how databases are created, searched, and maintained to provide information that end users need.

17 Database Management Approach
DBMS allows a user to make direct ad hoc interrogations of the database An example of a database management approach in a Banking information system

18 Database Management System (DBMS)
Is the main SW tool of the DB management approach. The three major functions of a DBMS are: 1- Database Development : Create new databases and database applications 2- Database Maintenance: Maintain the quality of the data in an organization’s databases 3- Data Interrogation: Use the databases of an organization to provide the information needed by end users Microcomputer DBMS packages allow you to setup and manage DB on your PC, NW server, or the WWW. In mainframe and server computer systems, the DBMS is an important system SW package that controls the development, use , and maintenance of the organizations DB. Ex. Oracle 10g, MySQL , DB2

19 DBMS Major Functions

20 Database Management System (DBMS)

21 Database Management System
Database Development Defining and organizing the content, relationships, and structure of the data needed to build a database

22 Database Interrogation
End users can use DBMS by asking for information from a DB. End User Makes DBMS Query Query Language Report Generator Immediate response to ad hoc data requests Quickly specify a format for information you want to present as a report No difficult programming required Response is a video display or a printed report

23 Database Interrogation
SQL Queries SQL or (Structured Query Language). Is an international standard query language found in many DBMS packages. Is the language structure used to “ask the DB a question”. The basic form of a SQL Query is SELECT…FROM…WHERE…

24 Database Interrogation
Graphical and Natural Queries Most end-user DBMS packages offer GUI point-and-click methods, which are easier to use Translates queries into SQL commands It is difficult to correctly phrase SQL and other database language search queries Other packages are available that use Natural language query statements similar to conversational English

25 Microsoft Access Query Wizard

26 Database Maintenance Database Maintenance
Accomplished by transaction processing systems and other end- user applications, with the support of the DBMS to add, delete, update, and correct the data in a database. Done to reflect new business transactions and other events.

27 Application Development
End-users, system analysts and application developers can use programming language or built-in SW development tools provided by DBMS to develop custom application programs. For example you can use a DBMS to develop the data entry screens, forms, reports of a business application that access a company database to find and update the data it needs. DBMS makes the job of application software developers easier, because they do not have to develop procedures using conventional programming languages every time they write a program.

28 Questions ..

29 Read from Chapter 5 (Section 2)
Resources .. Read from Chapter 5 (Section 2)

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