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Basic UNIX © McGraw Hill 2000. All rights reserved.

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1 Basic UNIX © McGraw Hill 2000. All rights reserved.

2 Introduction UNIX is an operating system UNIX has 3 main parts:  Kernel - manages hardware resources like terminals and printers  File System - accesses files; tree structured  Shell - interacts with users UNIX is interactive UNIX is multi-tasking UNIX is multi-user

3 System Prompt % or $ or computername> System prompt indicates that system is waiting for a command Enter commands at the prompt: %pine%menu %date%who %help%whoami %cal%cal arg (arg = year) %man arg (arg = command name) Note: UNIX commands are case sensitive!

4 File System File is a container for data 3 kinds of files: Directories (like folders) Container for files and other directories Sub-directory is a directory contained within another directory Ordinary files Special files

5 File Structure Directories and files are organized in a tree- like hierarchy Directory at the top is known as the root directory and is represented as a / Some standard subdirectories under the root directory are etc, usr, and tmp

6 UNIX Tree-like Hierarchy / mnt n bin tmp_mnt m 00 37 39 jrp hdb ehepp root Full pathname: /n/m/37/ehepp

7 Home Directory “Home” directory is where you find yourself when you log in To print the name of the directory you are in: %pwd (print working directory) Shows the “full pathname” eg. /n/m/37/ehepp

8 Pathnames A pathname is the concatenation of the directories you traverse to reach a file A relative pathname is the concatenation of the directory names from where you are currently “located” in the file hierarchy A full pathname specifies the complete path traversed starting with the root (also called an absolute pathname)

9 File and Directory Organization You can create and maintain files and directories in your home directory Use subdirectories to organize files Use the mkdir command to create a subdirectory: %mkdir myCS403stuff New subdirectory will be be created in current directory (also called working directory)

10 Moving Through the File Structure Using the cd command cd is the change directory command Specify a directory name as an argument to cd command to move to that directory within the current directory %cd myCS403stuff Specify a full pathname as an argument to change directories %cd /n/m/37/ehepp/myCS403stuff

11 cd Command (continued) %cd or %cd ~ will put you in your home directory: %cd %pwd /n/m/37/ehepp To move up one one level in a directory hierarchy, follow the cd command with two dots: %cd.. %pwd /n/m/37

12 File Manipulation Rename a file (move) %mv index.html index.old Delete a file (remove) %rm -i mystuff.txt Look at contents of a file %more index.html Copy a file %cp -i index.html index.bkup Create a file %pico myfile.html Update a file %pico myfile.html

13 Other UNIX Commands List a directory’s contents %ls List a directory’s contents in the “long form” %ls -l List a directory’s contents including hidden files %ls -a Remove a directory %rmdir myCS403stuff

14 File Permissions Permissions provide a measure of security by establishing who is able to access what files and directories, and how they can be accessed File and directory permissions can be displayed using the ls -l command %ls -l -r--r--r-- 1 marymc Spanish 167 Jul 27 08:15 file.txt

15 Permission Codes 3 identifiers specify who can access the file:  User who owns file – u (aka “owner”)  Users who are members of the same group as the file owner - g  All other users - o (aka “rest of the world”) 3 levels of access:  Read - r  Write - w  Execute – x (or “search” for directories)

16 Permission Codes (continued) r w x r w x r w x ug Nine characters are split into three sets of three characters each: - 1st set identifies permissions for the user - 2nd set identifies permissions for the group - 3rd set identifies permissions for others (the rest of the world) o

17 Permission Code Examples r - - r - - r - - user, group members, and others can read the file r - - - - - - - - only the user can read the file r w - r - - - - - user can read and write the file, group members can read the file, all others are denied access

18 Changing Permissions Use the chmod command to change permissions Two ways to use chmod command:  Symbolic form  Numeric form

19 Symbolic Form of chmod Uses permission code symbols (u, g, o, r, w, x) to add and remove permissions Basic form of command:  To add a permission: %chmod [who]+[access] filename eg. - %chmod o+r README  To remove a permission: %chmod [who]-[access] filename eg. - %chmod o-w README Note: Can set more than one at a time eg. - %chmod o+r,og-w myfile.html

20 Numeric Form of chmod Think of 9 character permission codes as 9 on/off switches represented by 1/0 r w x r w x r w x1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 r w x r - x r - -1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 View the binary representation as 3 triplets 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 11 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 7 7 7 7 5 4

21 Numeric Form of chmod (continued) Use chmod command with octal value representing desired permissions Examples: %chmod 777 myfile.html 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 r w x r w x r w x %chmod 711 mydirectory 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 r w x - - x - - x %chmod 644 myfile.html 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 r w - r - - r - -

22 File Names UNIX is case sensitive so Myfile.html is not the same as myfile.html Avoid special characters in file names: | & * Extension at end of file name indicates type of file:.html or.htm - Web page.c - C program - postscript file * represents any arbitrary character string eg. - %ls *.html

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