2 “If the human brain were so simple that we could understand it, we would be so simple that we couldn’t”-Emerson Pugh, The Biological Origin of Human Values (1977)
3 Parts of the Brain BRAINSTEM Heart rate and breathing THALAMUS RelaysmessagesamygdalahippocampuspituitaryCEREBELLUM Coordinationand balanceBRAINSTEM Heart rate and breathing
4 The Brain Brainstem Medulla responsible for automatic survival functionsMedullacontrols heartbeat and breathingBrainstemthe central core of the brain, beginning where the spinal cord swells as it enters the skullresponsible for automatic survival functionsMedulla [muh-DUL-uh]base of the brainstemcontrols heartbeat and breathingBrainstem, controls for heartbeat and breathing—swell is called the medulla.Vital Functions :BreathingBlood circulationSwallowingUrination
5 Reticular Formation Widespread connections Arousal of the brain as a wholeReticular activating system (RAS)Maintains consciousness and alertnessFunctions in sleep and arousal from sleepReticular formation The brainstem also contains networks of neurons,known collectively as the reticular formation, that project up into the cerebralcortex and basal ganglia and affect general arousal. The reticular formation is alsoinvolved in inducing and terminating the different stages of sleep. The autonomyof the brain stem can be dramatically illustrated by severing an animal’s brainstem from the entire brain above it, including its entire cerebral cortex. Cats thatreceive this treatment can still walk around and direct attacks at noises; if theythen find themselves holding on to food, they will eat it. Some cases have been reportedof humans born without cerebral cortices, and their behaviors are extremelybasic and reflexive. Such infants tend not to develop normally and also donot tend to survive
6 The Cerebellum helps coordinate voluntary movement and balance the “little brain” attached to the rear of the brainstem, cerebellum actually means little brain.Also helps involved in nonverbal learning and memory (will discuss in later chapters), if you injured your cerebellum you would have difficulty walking, keeping your balance, shaking hands.Note: these lower brain functions occur without any conscious effort.
7 The Limbic SystemHypothalamus, pituitary, amygdala, and hippocampus all deal with basic drives, emotions, and memoryHippocampus Memory processingAmygdala Aggression (fight) and fear (flight)Hypothalamus Hunger, thirst, body temperature, pleasure; regulates pituitary gland (hormones)The limbic system is an older term for a group of subcortical structures dealing with basic drives, emotions and memoryThe diencefpahlon (or between brain) the hypothalamus and thalamusThe hippocampus and amygdalaThe basal gangliaThe dreebral cortex
8 The Limbic System Hypothalamus neural structure lying below (hypo) the thalamus; directs several maintenance activitieseatingdrinkingbody temperaturehelps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary glandlinked to emotion(show video)
9 The Limbic System Amygdala two almond-shaped neural clusters that are components of the limbic system and are linked to emotion and fearResearchers began to find evidence that the amygdala was involved in the emotion of fear in the late 1930s. Monkeys with damage to the brain cluster and surrounding areas had a dramatic drop of fearfulness.Later, studies showed that rats with targeted amygdala damage would snuggle up to cats.But if you electrically stimulate the amygdala in a normally placid domestic animal such as a cat, the cat prepares to attach by hissing, arching its back, pupils dilate, and its hair stands up on end.Accumulating revelations about this fear system led researchers recently to examine the human brain's response to fear with imaging studies. One study showed that pictures of frightening faces initiate a quick rise and fall of activity in the amygdala.In the future, scientists believe imaging techniques may help determine the course of treatment for disorders involving a malfunction in fear processing. For example, a person with an extreme fear of germs who continuously washes, known as an obsessive-compulsive disorder,
10 The BrainThalamusthe brain’s sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstemit directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medullaThalamus- located on top of the brainstem, a joined pair of egg-shaped structures,Receives sensory info, routes it to higher brain regions that deal with seeing, tasting, touching etc.directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla
11 The Cerebral Cortex Cerebral Cortex the body’s ultimate control and information processing centerthe intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells that covers the cerebral hemispheres
12 The lobes of the cerebral hemispheres Figure page 110The lobes of the cerebral hemispheres: parietal, occipital, temporal, and frontal.
13 The lobes of the cerebral hemispheres Planning, decision making speechSensoryFigure page 110The lobes of the cerebral hemispheres: parietal, occipital, temporal, and frontal.VisionAuditory
14 The Cerebral Cortex Frontal Lobes Parietal Lobes involved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgmentsthe “executive”Parietal Lobesinclude the sensory cortexThe cerebral cortex is organized or divided into 4 regions or lobes.frontal lobe- behind your forehead, executive functions.-parietal lobe- at the top and to the rear of the head
15 The Cerebral Cortex Occipital Lobes Temporal Lobes include the visual areas, which receive visual information from the opposite visual fieldTemporal Lobesinclude the auditory areas, each of which receives auditory information primarily from the opposite earOccipital lobe- at the back of your head-Temporal lobe- just above your ears; receives auditory info primarily from the opposite ear.The lobes are separated by prominent fissures or folds. Important to note that although each lobe carries out different functions, many of our functions require the interplay or involvement of several lobes.Temporal lobes -- each of which receives auditory information primarily from the opposite ear
16 The Cerebral Cortex Frontal (Forehead to top) Motor Cortex Parietal (Top to rear) Sensory CortexOccipital (Back) Visual CortexTemporal (Above ears) Auditory Cortex
20 Contra-lateral division of labor Right hemisphere controls left side of body and visual fieldLeft hemisphere controls right side of body and visual field
21 Split Brain PatientsEpileptic patients had corpus callosum cut to reduce seizures in the brainLives largely unaffected, seizures reducedAffected abilities related to naming objects in the left visual fieldleft and right brain differences in learning.m4v
23 Brain PlasticityThe ability of the brain to reorganize neural pathways based on new experiencesPersistent functional changes in the brain represent new knowledgeAge dependent componentBrain injuries
24 Environmental influences on neuroplasticity Impoverished environmentEnriched environment
25 Phineas Gage September 13th, 1848 Phineas 25 years old Rutland & Burlington Railroad, Cavendish, VTPaving the way for new RR tracks“Tamping Iron”1.25in x 3ft
33 The Brain's Inner Workings - Part 1 - Structure and Function Neural TransmissionThe Brain's Inner Workings - Part 1 - Structure and FunctionThe Brain's Inner Workings - Part 2 – CognitionNeurons and how they work
34 Steps in Neural Transmission Class Challenge Goal: gain a hands-on idea of how electrical information is passed along an axon for neural transmission to occur.1 Facilitator and 12 students.Facilitator- Assign the following roles to each student in your group: electrical stimulus, dendrite, cell body, axon, myelin sheath (use four students for this one), positive ion, negative ion, terminal button, and neighboring neuron. (use the text to help you understand what each role does)Group – Students line up in the correct order of neural transmission.Facilitator – Orchestrate the group to ‘act out’ each of the steps and have each student act out their parts as you are going through the steps. Do this a couple of times until you think they have the hang of it. Next, allow the students to run through the steps by themselves. (Extra points for creativity)
35 Neural Transmission Act 1 electrical stimulusdendritecell bodyaxonmyelin sheath (use four students for this one)positive ionnegative ionterminal buttonneighboring neuron.
37 Introductory Psychology Concepts The Brain - Major Structures and Their FunctionAmygdalaHippocampusCerebrumThalamusCorpus callosumHypothalamusPituitary glandPonsCerebellumMedullaBrain stemReticular formationSpinal cord