Presentation on theme: "DATA ANALYSIS IN QUALITATIVE RESEARCH Review - DATA COLLECTION METHODS= before I analyze, I must collect 1. usually data is collected by the use of two,"— Presentation transcript:
Review - DATA COLLECTION METHODS= before I analyze, I must collect 1. usually data is collected by the use of two, three or more methods. These are usually a combination of a. observation, b. interviews (individual and/or focus groups), c. unobtrusive measures, or sometimes questionnaires/surveys. 2. This process is known as triangulation or convergent analysis. The idea behind using multiple sources is this. You cannot expect to get a ‘true’ picture of a program if you interview only professionals about it. Likewise, if we used only ‘client records’, we would not get a true picture. Each would give us a valuable perspective, but not the complete picture. By using several data sources (Sometimes asking the same questions)and methods of collection, WE CAN A. COMPILE THEM, THEN B. SORT THROUGH THEM, THEN C. IDENTIFY AREAS OF CONSENSUS, CONCURRENT THEMES AND AREAS OF DISAGREEMENT!!!! IF ALL DATA SOURCES AND METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION SUGGEST THE SAME THEME OR AREAS CONSENSUS OR DISAGREEMENT, THEY ARE SAID TO CONVERGE. 3. the use of independent sources that are focused on the same question or observation is necessary. For example, If I wanted to know which activities are seen as most useful in a program, I might A. meet with four or five clients individually as key informants and do a semi- structured interview. Or give a survey to all clients. Then B. create a focus group of 4 or five staff members and ask them the same or similar questions. Likewise, if I was using direct observation in order to determine the usefulness of a ‘daily living skills class’ as part of my evaluation of a day program, I WOULD WANT TO OBSERVE THE GROUP ON AT LEAST THREE DIFFERENT (INDEPENDENT)OCCASIONS. I WOULD ALSO MAKE SURE THAT I AM OBSERVING FOR THE SAME LENGTH OF TIME (ALTHOUGH IT MIGHT BE AT DIFFERENT TIMES DURING THE DAY OR WEEK).
By using several independent observations – rather than one or two – I MAKE SURE THAT I AM NOT GETTING JUST A GOOD DAY OR A BAD DAY!!!! This technique of ‘systematic observation’ wherein observer selects 1. the same observational target at 2. several different points in time. 3. for the same length of time, and focuses on 4. the same types of observation (the same data), is known as SAMPLING. WHEN USING THIS METHOD, IT IS IMPORTANT TO HAVE SOME IDEA – SPECIFICALLY – WHAT IT IS THAT YOU ARE LOOKING FOR AHEAD OF TIME!!! Another helpful way to create independent observations, is to have more than one observer, look at the same ‘observational sample’. Afterward they can compare notes to see if they observed the same or similar things.
RECORD- QUALITATIVE RESEACRHERS ARE CONSTANT NOTE-TAKERS 1.Field Notes--A running account of what happens or transcriptions of video or audio tapes. It is important to be thorough in taking field notes, particularly at the earliest phases of research; as much as possible, try to get the whole picture of what is happening. With some approaches you will analyze your field notes; with others you will get "new" data by careful re-analysis of video tape, perhaps watching small segments, perhaps even frame by frame (you code these). Good to do both, adding to field notes. Used primarily in direct observation or in transcribing audio/videotapes 2. Personal Notes--Personal reactions, how you feel, self-reflection, memories, and impressions. A bit like a diary, so you can later see your own possible influences on the data and the effects of personal events to the data collection and analysis. Includes notes to yourself about feelings, reactions, biases, data changing your impressions and preconceptions. (Like a diary of the process, but personal.) What memories does the tape cause you to recall? Personal notes help reveal inner dialogue, self doubts and questions, delight with insights, anger or frustrations you feel, but especially your struggles. May be used throughout process; but it is particularly important to take personal notes during the “immersion” part of data analysis. 3. Methodology Notes--Description of methods used, reasons for using those methods, ideas for possible changes in methodology. This is used for keeping track of changes and rational for changes. Include possible and actual adaptations of methods. Can include methods of analysis. Includes modifications made to data analysis method, if any. What other angles do you wish the camera would use? What is the value and limit of this angle? What is the value and limit of not being there and using camera data? If you could, what questions would you ask the kids about what you see? (Might go back to field and ask them.) Also methods changed in observation/interview - reflections on why you change methods and details of changes. 4. Theoretical Notes--Emergent trends, hypotheses. Also can include guesses and hunches to follow up later in your research. Describe changes made to emergent categories and hypotheses, and the reasons why those changes were made. What are some trends you see? Emergent hypotheses you would like to test (how you plan to test them is in methodology notes). Tests of hypotheses. You could code these. Used primarily in data analysis; particularly when categorizing, sorting, analyzing, synthesizing and hypothesizing.
These four kinds of notes will overlap from time to time. In my own research, I found myself blending personal notes with the other varieties, and thus did not use personal notes for awhile. Later in the research I found I needed a separate category again so I began keeping personal notes again.
The biggest points here are that methods Of data collection 1. should be multiple so that one can get at the same question from different perspectives 2. Observations should be multiple so that different, independent observations can be made over time, on the same target 3. Data is most often in the form of some type of notes
Before we go into initial data analysis, lets review the general steps in most qualitative research: ******GENERAL STEPS IN QUALITATIVE RESEARCH****** 1. Observe events/ask questions with open-ended answers, 2. Record/log what is said and/or done 3. Interpret (personal reactions, write emergent speculations or hypotheses, monitor methods) OR Look for Regularities (analyze for patterns) 4. Return to observe, or ask more questions of people 5. [recurring cycles of 2-4--iteration] 6. Formal theorizing [emerges out of speculations and hypotheses] 7. Draw conclusions