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1 Social Perceptions Inter-Act, 13 th Edition Chapter 2.

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1 1 Social Perceptions Inter-Act, 13 th Edition Chapter 2

2 Social Perception 2 Also known as “cognitive perception,” it is the set of processes by which people perceive themselves and others.

3 Chapter 2 Objectives Describe the perceptual process Explain how we form perceptions of others and why we sometimes misperceive others Discuss how self-perceptions, self-concept, and self- esteem are formed and how we can make improvements Identify the human factors that influence our attitudes toward social media 3

4 The Perception Process 4 The process of selectively attending to, organizing, and interpreting the information that we receive through our senses Attention & Selection Organization Interpretation

5 Attention and Selection Selection is determined by: 1. Our needs 2. Our interests 3. Our expectations 5

6 Organization Simplicity: the brain reduces complex stimuli into recognized forms Pattern recognition: the brain organizes information into recognizable patterns or systems of interrelated parts 6

7 Interpretation 7 The process of assigning meaning to the information that has been selected and organized

8 Dual Processing in Perception Automatic processing ◦ Fast, subconscious ◦ Heuristics: rules of thumb for how something is to be viewed based on experience Conscious processing ◦ Slow, deliberative approach ◦ We examine and think about the stimuli 8

9 Perceiving Others 9 Uncertainty reduction theory: ways individuals monitor their social environments to know more about themselves and others

10 Impression Formation 10 Physicalappearance: Physical appearance: predictions based on appearance Implicit personality theory: Implicit personality theory: inaccurate perceptions based on the association of physical or other characteristics with personality traits Assumed similarity: Assumed similarity: thinking that others who share one characteristic with you also share others

11 Making Attributions 11 Attributions: Attributions: reasons we give for our own and others’ behavior Situational attribution: Situational attribution: attributing behavior to an external situation, outside of a person’s control Dispositional attribution: Dispositional attribution: attributing behavior to someone’s internal disposition or personality

12 12 Person-Perception Biases – Person-Perception Biases – selective perception, stereotyping, halo effects, forced consistency, projection, and fundamental attribution error Person-Perception Biases

13 Biases Include: Selective Perception – Selective Perception – inaccurately paying attention only to what we expect to see or hear and ignoring what we don’t expect Stereotyping – Stereotyping – ◦ Prejudice: stereotyping based on the characteristics of a person’s group ◦ Discrimination: acting differently toward a person based on prejudice ◦ Racism, Ethnocentrism, Heterosexism, Sexism, Ageism, Able- ism: belief that the behaviors or characteristics of one group are inherently superior to those of another 13

14 14 Halo effects – Halo effects – thinking a person has a whole set of related personality traits when only one trait has actually been observed Forced consistency – Forced consistency – interpreting conflicting different perceptions of another person so our interpretation of what we see remains consistent Projection – Projection – thinking that someone who is like us in one respect will share other characteristics and attitudes Fundamental attribution error – Fundamental attribution error – ascribing others’ negative behavior to their dispositions while ascribing our negative behavior to the situation

15 Improving Social Perceptions Question the accuracy of perceptions. Seek more information. Use conscious processing. Realize that perceptions change. Use perception checking. 15

16 16 Self-concept – Self-concept – your perception of your competencies and personality traits Self-esteem – Self-esteem – your evaluation of your perceived competence and personal worthiness Self-Perception

17 Cultural & Self-Perception 17 Independent self-perception: viewing traits, abilities, and personality as internal and universally applicable Interdependent self-perception: viewing traits, abilities, and personality as dependent upon the situation

18 Positive Self-Esteem 18 Perception of having a characteristic + Personal belief that the characteristic is of positive value = Positive self-esteem

19 Accuracy of Self-Concept and Self-Esteem 19 Incongruence: gap between self- perception and reality Self-fulfilling prophecies: events that happen as the result of being foretold, expected, or talked about Filtering messages: paying attention only to messages that reinforce our current self-concept

20 Self-Perception and Communication 20 Our self-perception affects our communication by influencing: How we talk to/about ourselves How we talk to/about others.

21 Social Media: The Human Factor Self-disclosure Social connection Convenience ◦ an opportunity and a challenge Apprehension Miscommunication 21

22 Self-Perception Online Online communication attitudes influence how much you communicate through social media. Extra Credit: Go to your Facebook page Reflect on the information posted to your profile Assess your digital self- disclosure and social connection 22

23 Homework: List 10 words to describe yourself. Use a variety of descriptors: roles, skills, physical attributes, personality characteristics, etc. Have a family member, close friend, and acquaintance each list 10 words to describe you. Analyze the differences/similarities. Then describe the 5 most significant situations, events, or experiences that have shaped your current self- concept. Explain. Review your Assignment Rubric! 23

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