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Chapter 2 A rapid overview.

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1 Chapter 2 A rapid overview

2 Purpose Goal: To introduce the technical terms related to English grammar in order to develop a metalanguage.

3 Two kinds of sentences Clausal sentence- has the form of a single clause. Kim is an actor. Pat is a teacher. Sam is an architect. 2. Compound sentence- has two or more coordinating clauses, joined by a coordinator (and, or, but) Kim is an actor, but Pat is a teacher. Kim is an actor, Pat is a teacher, and Sam is an architect. What’s a clause?

4 Clause, word and phrase A clause consists of a subject and a predicate. The subject (Subj) is a noun and the predicate (Pred) is a verb 1. Things change. Subj pred 2. Kim left. Subj Pred 3. People complained. Subj Pred

5 Clause, word and phrase Where’s the Subject and Predicate?
All things change. Kim left early. Some people complained about it. Noun phrase (NP): consists of a noun with or without various dependents, i.e. the head is accompanied by zero or more dependents. Verb phrase (VP): consists of a verb with our without various dependents.

6 Subject and predicate Clauses consists of a subject and predicate.
What’s the definition of subject? predicate? The subject indicates a the actor, the person or thing performing the action. The predicate describes the action. Kim left early. The book was stolen. ??

7 It’s easier to distinguish the subject/predicate syntactically
For example, a subject usually has the following properties It usually has the form of a NP Its default position is before the verb. In interrogative clauses (yes/no questions) it typically occupies a distinctive position just after the verb. The clock has stopped. Kim is downstairs. Some customers complained. The three properties are considered syntactic tests

8 Two theoretical distinctions
Subject is a function, NP is a category What is the function of the underlined? What is the category? Some customers complained Kim insulted some customers.

9 Words and lexemes They had two cats and a dog; one cat kept attacking the dog. Are cats and cat the same word? Are dog and dog the same word? Cat and cats are different words, but forms of the same lexeme (dictionary entry). The difference between different forms of lexemes is in its inflectional forms. Cat and cats are inflectional forms of the lexeme cat Take, takes, took, taking, taken are inflectional forms of the lexeme take

10 Word and lexeme categories: the parts of speech
Noun Verb Adjective Determiner Adverb Preposition Coordinator Subordinator Can function as the head of a phrase (noun phrase, verb phrase, adjective phrase, etc.)

11 Nouns Nouns make up the largest category Meaning page 16
Inflection: The inflectional forms of most nouns contrast between singular and plural cat – cats C. Function: Nouns generally function as the head of NPs D. Differences from traditional grammar Common nouns, proper nouns, and pronouns are all considered nouns. Nps function as the subject

12 Verbs Meaning ? Inflection: Tense (past, present) Present
She works in Paris. They work in Paris. Preterite She worked in Paris. C. Function: verbs function as head of VPs D. Subclasses: Auxiliary verbs and lexical verbs (ran, walk, dance) VPs function as predicates

13 Lexical (run, sing, dance)
Verbs Auxiliary Modal (can, may, must) Non-modal (be, have, do) Lexical (run, sing, dance) Lexical (main verb) Auxiliary are usually followed by another verb

14 Auxiliary verbs have the following properties:
1. They can sometimes precede the subject. This occurs in interrogatives Can you speak French? *Speak you French? 2. Auxiliaries are usually followed by another verb. It will rain. They are working in Paris. She has gone home.

15 Adjectives Meaning ? Function: Most adjectives can function in either two major functions, attributive and predicative: Attributive Predicative 1.a. Some hot soup 1.b. the soup is hot 2.a. a jealous husband 2.b. he became jealous.

16 In the attributive use the adjective functions as modifier to a following noun.
In the predicative use it generally occurs after the verb be or after copula verbs such as become, feel, seem

17 C. Gradability and inflection
Most adjectives are gradable – that is, they denote properties that can be possessed in varying degrees. The degree can indicated by a modifier, as in fairly big, very hot, extremely jealous – and can be questioned by how: How big is it? The degree can be marked with inflection. This inflectional system is called grade: old is the plain form, older the comparative, and oldest the superlative Plain Comparative Superlative Kim is old. Kim is older than Pat Kim is the oldest of them all.

18 Determinatives Definiteness: The two most common determiners are the and a. They mark the NP as definite in the case of the and indefinite in the case of a. Where’s the dog? I could hear a dog barking. There are other determiners besides the and a: Examples include this, that, some, any, many, few, one, two, three, etc. It isn’t that bad.

19 Adverbs Relation to adjectives
The most obvious adverbs are those derived from adjectives by adding -ly: Some adverbs don’t have this form, they include almost, always, not, often, quite, rather, soon, too, and very, ADJECTIVE Careful certain fortunate obvious ADVERB carefully certainly fortunately obviously

20 B. Function Adverbs function as modifiers of verbs (or VPs), adjectives, or other modifiers.
Modifying a verb or VP She spoke clearly I often see them Modifying an Adjective A remarkably good idea It’s very expensive Modifying an adverb She spoke quite clearly It’ll end quite soon.

21 Prepositions Meaning? Function: Prepositions function as the head of preposition phrases (pp), and PPs function as dependents of VPs, nouns, adjectives… I sat by the door.

22 Coordinators And, or, but
Function: Their function is to mark the coordination of two or more expressions. We need a long table and at least eight chairs.

23 Subordinators Function:
Some example of subordinators are that, whether, and one use of if – the one used interchangeably with whether. I don’t know whether/if it’s possible. These words serve to mark a clause as subordinate Subordinate clauses are dependent clauses Main clause Subordinate clause He did his best I realize (that he did his best)

24 The concept of prototype
Categories such as nouns, verbs, and adjective have many properties distinguishing them from each other. Some nouns, verbs, and adjectives do not. The word prototypical is used for words of a category that have a full set of properties Cat and dog are prototypical nouns, but equipment is a nonprototypical noun. Go, know, and tell are prototypical verbs, but must is nonprototypical.

25 The structure of phrases
page 22, 23 will be explained in chapter 5

26 Canonical and non-canonical clauses
Refer to book

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