Presentation on theme: "Joints of the human body. Joints are the point of contact (articulations) between two connecting bones. The stability and the integrity of joints are."— Presentation transcript:
Joints are the point of contact (articulations) between two connecting bones. The stability and the integrity of joints are maintained by strands of connective tissue called ligaments, which hold bones together.
Classification of Joints Structural classification of joints recognize three types of joints. Fibrous Joints Cartilaginous Joints Synovial Joints
Classification of Joints (Structure) Joint typesDescriptionExamples Fibrous Joints Bound tightly together by connective tissue and allow no movement. The sutures between the bones of the skull (vault) Cartilaginous Joints: The body of one bone connects with the body of another by means of cartilage. These joints can absorb shock, and allow slight movement. The intervertebral disks of the vertebral column & Symphysis pubis Synovial Joints: Joints that allow the greatest range of motion. Bony surfaces are separated by a lubricating fluid and by cartilage. They are also joined by ligaments that enclose the end of articulating bones and form the capsule containing the synovial membrane Knee joint Shoulder joint Hip joint Etc.
Characteristics of a Synovial Joint 1. Articulating cartilage: The hyaline cartilage located at the ends of the bones allow for smooth contact surfaces for bones to move. They also act as shock absorbers
Characteristics of a Synovial Joint Joint capsule: Consists of a synovial membrane and a fibrous capsule. Synovial membrane: Allows certain nutrients to pass through Fibrous capsule: Keeps synovial fluid is
Characteristics of a Synovial Joint Joint Cavity Located between to bony surfaces, this cavity is filled with synovial fluid which lubricates the joint. This lubricant reduces friction between the bones, and also provides nutrients for the articulating cartilage
Characteristics of a Synovial Joint 4. Bursae These small fluid-filled sacs are found at friction points between ligaments, tendons, and bones. They provide cusion, reduce friction and allow free movement in the joint.
Characteristics of a Synovial Joint Intrinsic Ligaments Thick bands of connective tissue that reinforce the joint capsule Extrinsic Ligaments Seperate from the joint capsule, they help reinforce the joint by attaching the bones together
Types of Synovial Joints Synovial joints are often distinguished by the kind of movement the joint permits. There are 6 types of synovial joints: Hinge Joints Pivot Joints Ellipsoid (Condyloid) Joints Saddle Joints Ball and socket Joints Plane (Glidding) Joints
Hinge Joints Unilateral Joint One articulating surface is convex and the other is concave Examples: Humero-ulnar joint Interphalangeal joints (fingers)
Pivot Joints Unilateral Joint One bone rotates around one axis Example: atlantoaxial joint Radioulnar joint
Ellipsoid (Condyloid) Joints Bilateral (flexion-extension, abduction-adduction) One surface is a ovular convex shape, and the other is a reciprocally concave surface.
Saddle Joint Bilateral (flexion-extension, abduction-adduction) Bone are set together as in sitting on a horse Example Carpometacarpal joint