Who Is At Risk? -On average, each year 1.7 million people sustain some sort of TBI -Approximately 18% of all TBI related emergency room visits involve children aged 0-4 -Approximately 22% of all TBI hospitalizations involved adults aged 75 years and older -59% of TBIs happen to males
Types of TBI Closed injury: This type of TBI occurs when the brain moves, shifts around, inside the skull without penetration Penetrating injury: This type of TBI occurs when an object actually enters the skull. CDC
Concussions: What is a concussion? What is a concussion? -Children and Teens are more likely to get a concussions than adults and take longer to recover from them -Falls, Sports and Motor Vehicles are the the largest contributors to TBI's amongst kids and students -A more serious concussion, can lead to consequences involving movement, speaking or learning. Web MD
Concussions in Sports -Annually, 173,285 sports and recreation related TBIs, including concussions, are reported amongst kids aged 0-19 -During the last decade, emergency room visits for sports related incidents in children increased by 60% -Football, Basketball, Soccer, Bicycling, and Playground Activities are common activities where concussions can occur
Symptoms of Concussions Student is/has: Unable to concentrate for very long Can't recall new information Terrible headaches Blurry vision Dizziness Sensitivity to light or noise More emotional than usual Anisocoria
Shaken Baby Syndrome -Triad of symptoms including: -Subdural Hematoma -Retinal Hemorrhage -Cerebral Oedema -Can be caused by direct blows to the head, dropping or throwing a child, or shaking a child. -Often fatal and a primary cause of brain damage amongst infants. -
Shaken Baby Syndrome Con't -Because the anatomy of infants puts them at particular risk for injury from this kind of action, the majority of victims are infants younger than 1 year old. -SBS often causes irreversible damage. In the worst cases, children die due to their injuries. -The children that survive often exhibit symptoms identical, if not worse than children with TBI's.
How doctors test for Concussions or TBI's CT Scan MRI Extensive list of questions or activities Blood Tests Angiogram ICP Monitor EEG
How to Measure Functioning Ability of the Patient Disability Rating Scale Functional Independent Measurement Functional Assessment Measurement Glasgow Coma Scale
Characteristics of recovering TBI patients. _If the child has partial or complete paralysis _If the child has serious physical damage to their head _If the child is often dizzy and tired _If a child's motor skills are not functioning as usual _If the child has memory or attention problems _If a child's senses have been impaired
Lasting effects of a TBI Memory Vision Depression Paralysis Damaged motor skills Headaches Short Term Memory Loss
As a teacher, how can you recognize a student with TBI? -If a child is depressed or anti-social -If a child is sensitive to light or sound -If a child's academic performance suddenly falls far behind other students -If a child has trouble maintaining balance -If a child was absent from school for an extended amount of time for a hospital stay
REMINDER! A child who suffered a traumatic brain injury, is not technically/medically similar to a child with a learning disorder. A child who has suffered a TBI is in a different category than those with a learning disability. However, they may exhibit the same characteristics and will benefit from the same learning/teaching strategies
How to create a compatible learning environment for TBI students Minimize stimulation Space between desks Small groups Consistent Written Schedule "Classroom buddy"
Learning strategies for TBI children Verbal/written instructions Shorter assignments Facilitate note-taking with specific headings Short & frequent quizzes Cues for catching/keeping their attention
what did you learn about TBI's that you didn't know before?