2 Major World War I Battles Battle of Tannenburg:Aug. 1914, Russia’s worst defeat in World War IFirst Battle of the Marne: Sept. 1914, Allies halted German advance, saving Paris from occupationFirst Battle of Ypres: Oct.–Nov. 1914, last major German offensive until 1918Battle of Gallipoli: Apr.–Dec. 1915, failed attempt of the Allies to knock Turkey out of the warBattle of Verdun: Feb.–Dec. 1916, longest battle of World War I with huge loss of lifeBattle of the Somme: July–Nov. 1916, first great offensive of the British, best remembered for its staggering loss of lifeThird Battle of Ypres (Passchendaele): July–Nov. 1917, so many losses that the name Passchendaele came to mean senseless slaughterBattle of Caporetto: Oct.–Nov. 1917, tremendous victory for the Central Powers
3 Major Battles and Events Marne North of Paris the French stop the German advance and ruins the Schlieffen Plan.After this point the war becomes a stalemate and they dig into the Trenches.The front lines change little for the rest of the war.Christmas Truce Christmas Eve the soldiers on the front hold up candles and sing Christmas Carols.On Christmas day they agreed not to fight and came out of their ditches to meet in the middle and hold funeral services and bury the dead.Verdun Place of Legendary battles, and importance, city surrounded by underground tunnels.German offensive goal to kill (attrition) not for land, to get other side to surrender because of high body count.Started with a heavy artillery attack, French and Germany forces clash after 9 months and 1 million dead or wounded nothing is accomplished.
4 Somme - 1916- North of Somme- 30 miles where the British try to break the German lines. Fought at same time as Verdun in attempt to relieve pressure.Artillery bombardment for 7 days believed to destroy Germans.When the British advances across no mans land they are slaughtered 20,000 in one day.1 million dead or wounded in six months, 6 miles changed handsGallipoli- The British (Australians) assault on a Turkish peninsula in an attempt to open the strait to the Black Sea and their ally the Russians for re-supply.British are unable to breach the high cliff and dig in at the beaches and get stuck in a stalemate.Lost 250,000 men and withdrew in JanGenocide- mass murder of a group usually ethnic based. Muslim Turks force Christian Armenians in the north by the Russian border to leave their homes and then murdered them or left them to starve in the desert. 500,000 die
5 Other FrontsWestern Front- 475 miles of trenches from Swiss border through France and Belgium to the Atlantic Ocean.Italian Front- Austria- Hungary fights Italy along the northern border, they break through Italian lines late 1917-Battle of Caporetto- but are pushed back with the help of the AlliesBalkan Front-Austria- Hungary overruns Serbia and fights the Allies along the border of Greece.Fighting with the Turks at Gallipoli over the water ways to the black sea.Rumania joins in with Allies, also overran.Eastern Front- After Battle of Tannenberg Russia continues to be beaten, Germans make their way into Russia.At first Russia does well against Austria but 1915 continues to be driven back into Russia by Austria also.Russian army is poorly equipped, not enough food, clothing, weapons, moral is very low.
6 Overview65 million combatants from 30 countries representing every continent.29 million become casualties.Naval battles around the world and land battles in Europe, Africa, and Asia.Triple Alliance = Germany, Austria, Italy+Turkey + Bulgaria - Italy = Central PowersEntente Cordiale = Britain, France+ Russia + Italy + (later) US = Allied PowersRevolutionary technology, but evolutionary tactics(?)
9 How Did the War Become a Global Conflict? 3EASTERN EUROPESOUTHERN EUROPEIn August 1914, Russian armies pushed into eastern Germany.After Russia was defeated in the battle of Tannenburg, armies in the east fought on Russian soil.In 1915, Bulgaria joined the Central Powers and helped crush Serbia.OUTSIDE EUROPETHE COLONIESJapan, allied with Britain, tried to impose a protectorate on China.The Ottoman empire joined the Central Powers in 1914.Arab nationalists revolted against Ottoman rule.The Allies overran German colonies in Africa and Asia.The great powers turned to their own colonies for troops, laborers, and supplies.
10 1914 – 1915 Illusions and Stalemate Many Europeans were excited about war“Defend yourself against the aggressors”Domestic differences were put aside
11 1914 – 1915 Illusions and Stalemate War would be over in a few weeksIgnored the length and brutality of the American Civil War(prototype to World War I)
12 1914 – 1915 Illusions and Stalemate Belief that Modern industrial war could not be conducted for more than a few months“Home by Christmas”
13 1914June 28, 1914 Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the throne of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, is assassinated in Sarajevo.July 28 Austria-Hungary declares war on Russia.August 1 Germany declares war on Russia.August 3 Germany declares war on France.August 4 Great Britain declares war on Germany.August 4 Germany invades neutral Belgium.August German army, led by Erich Ludendorff and Paul von Hindenburg, achieves its greatest victory of the war on the Eastern front against Russia at the Battle of Tannenberg.September 5-10 First Battle of the Marne halts German invasion in France.September 15 First trenches of the Western front are dug.
14 “Belgium is a country, not a road” King Albert I of Belgium denied permissionAugust 2, 1914 Germany declared war on FranceWhy???The Schlieffen Plan!August 4, 1914 Great Britain declared war on Germany for violating Belgian neutrality
16 The Powers Prepare for War July 23 – August 3, 1914 June 28, 1914Assassination of Archduke Franz FerdinandJuly 5-6, 1914Germany supports Austria-HungaryJuly 28, 1914Austria-Hungary declares war on SerbiaJuly 31, 1914German forces begin to mobilizeAugust 1, 1914Germany declares war on Russia & FranceWith Russia mobilizing, Germany has no choice but to demand an immediate halt or to declare war before anyone else can. Russia refuses to stop it mobilization and within hours on August 1, 1914 Germany is at war with Russia. Kaiser Wilhelm II needs no excuse to declare war on France and does so two days later on August 3. This sets up the first stage of the "Schlieffen Plan".
17 The Schlieffen Plan Invade western front 1st After defeating France concentrate on the Eastern frontAvoid fighting a 2 front war
18 Schlieffen PlanGermans want to finish off French before Russia is ready to fight.Germans believe French will immediately try to retake Alsace-Lorraine.Original plan called for economy of force on the left while heavily weighting the right flankVon Moltke revised and distributed forces more evenly across the front.Plan failed when Germans were held up by Belgians, then stopped by French and British at the Battle of the Marne.Russians also mobilized more quickly than expected.
19 German Aggression Leads the Way The Outbreak of War (1914) Germany had prepared a battle-plan well in advance of the outbreak of war & used the Russian mobilization as an excuse to launch their attackTHE SCHLIEFFEN PLAN(Germany’s 2-Part Plan for the War)Attack France thru NEUTRAL Belgium to avoid forts along the French-German border (defeat France in a matter of weeks)Reverse course and attack Russia before it was fully mobilized for warThe “Offensive” strategy & attack thru Belgium will be critical in Germany being blamed for “starting” WWIThe Schlieffen Plan1914
21 The Schlieffen Plan’s Destructive Nature Germany made vast encircling movement through Belgium to enter ParisUnderestimated speed of the British mobilizationQuickly sent troops to France
22 The Schlieffen Plan’s Destructive Nature Sept 6-10, 1914Battle of MarneStopped the Germans but French troops were exhaustedBoth sides dug trenches for shelterSTALEMATE
23 Paris: The First Day of Mobilization, Sunday August 2 1914
24 The German Attack August 4, 1914 German forces invade neutral BelgiumAugust 26-30, 1914Battle of TannenbergOctober-November, 1914First Battle of YpresDecember 25, 1914Unofficial Christmas Truce on the Western FrontThe French thought that Germany's advance into Belgium was a diversion. Most of the French army moved northeast to attack Germany through the lost provinces of Alsace and Lorraine.The first major battle on the Eastern front occurred when German forces surrounded and destroyed the Russian army at the Battle of Tannenberg. This August 1914 battle was Germany's greatest victory of the war.
25 First Battle of the Marne September 5 -10, 1914 German plans for the Western Front began to fall apart in September of 1914.As the German right flank drove deeper, it was separated from the rest of the invading German force. This made it vulnerable and forced the Germans pulled up twenty-five miles short of Paris.This was France’s chance to attack. What followed was the First Battle of the Marne where the German advance was stopped
26 The First Battle of the Marne The German army quickly advanced through northern France and after only one month of fighting were barely 25 miles from Paris.The French, however, would not give up.The BattleThe French launched a counterattack along the Marne River east of Paris on September 7, 1914.This battle became known as the First Battle of the Marne.2 million men fought on a battle-front that stretched 125 miles.After five days and 250,000 deaths, the French had rallied and pushed the Germans back some 40 miles.The AftermathThe French paid a heavy price, as countless red-coated French troops had fallen in the battle.Despite the loss of life, it helped the Allies by giving Russia more time to mobilize for war.Once Russia mobilized, Germany had to pull some of its troops out of France and send them to fight Russia on the Eastern Front, which stretched from the Black Sea to the Baltic Sea.
27 BATTLE OF THE MARNEThe 1st Battle of Marne - The First World War - Sept 1914Germans continued their push towards Paris. This was part of the Schlieffen PlanBritish and French troops retreated to positions south of the Seine and Marne rivers. French 6th Army launched a counter attack.French managed to save Paris. (Reinforcements were sent in taxi's from Paris.)
28 BATTLE OF THE MARNEAround 600 taxis used to transport 6,000 French troops to battle.Over 2 million troops fought in First Battle of the Marne.260,000 ALLIED CASUALTIES250,000 GERMAN CASUALTIES
29 Battle of the Marne Sept.-Nov. 1914 Germans encounter heavyresistance at the Marne RiverFrench & Germans digdefensive trenchesHalts German offensive
30 A Massive “Meat Grinder”: The Western Front Early Battles of the War--The Battle of the Marne (September 6, 1914)Immovable front for two and a half yearsTrench warfare--25,000 miles of trenchesCavalry gives way to infantry
32 Grim statistics for the Eastern war: more than three-million men dead, Eastern Front of the great war had a profound impact on the remainder of the 20th centuryGrim statistics for the Eastern war:more than three-million men dead,more than nine-million men wounded,and every major country which participated lost its form of government.Russia collapsed completely and catastrophically
33 State of the Russian Army Russian Army of World War One has become notorious for its reputation as a large, ill-equipped forceRussia's Imperial Troops were actually well trained and equippedReal problem: inadequate transportation infrastructure, which was not able to supply and maintain Russian field formations at wartime establishments, and poor command decisionsEquipment: the average Russian soldier in the 1st and 2nd Line had sidearms, rifles and machine guns equal to his German counterparts, and probably superior to the Austriansstandard Russian Field Guns, the 76.2 mm and 122 mm, were robust enough to be used in World War Two and still be in reserve units in the 1980's
34 Pre-War DecisionsRussian Army High Command had maintained a lively pre-war debate over what action would be taken in case of war with Germanyby 1910 it was decided to launch major offensive operations immediately upon the outbreak of any wardecision catered to the "spirit of the offensive" which then pervaded European military thought, and as a result most Russian fortress units were deactivatedage-old Russian strategy of defense-in-depth supported by counteroffensives was cast asidewould exact a brutal toll in Russian lives, which in turn helped to spur later unrest
35 Austria-HungaryAustro-Hungarian Army of 1914 had been starved of proper equipment and resources throughout the pre-war periodcomposed of an increasingly nationalistic soldiery, three-quarters of whom were from Slavic recruiting districtsthese troops proved to be reluctant to follow Austrian officers into combat against their Russian brethrenbecame a major liability, especially after the enormous losses suffered during the first year of war.
36 Germany on the Eastmain German armies in the East operated with characteristic efficiencytroops enjoyed the luxury of fighting the battles of maneuver for which they had been trainedRussian front saw the rise of the great German "artillery virtuosos" of the war like Lieutenant Colonel Georg BruchmüllerBruchmüller orchestrated artillery firepower with ferocious efficiencyundertook aggressive training measures to assure near perfect coordination between the artillery and infantry branches of the army
37 Conduct of War German attack in the West French counter-attack but are pushed backRussian speed of mobilization surprised Germans so Germany was forced to move some troops to the Eastern frontStagnation and trench warfare in the West
38 Opening the War on the Eastern Front Eastern half of the Great War began on August 17, 1914 w/ the Battles of Stalluponen and GumbinnenRussian General Pavel Rennenkampf's First Army invaded Eastern Prussia in a full scale offensiveTwo days later, General Alexander Samsonov's Second Army attacked around the right flank of the German Eighth Army commanded by General Friedrich von PrittwitzThis was achieved despite the fact that Second Army was fighting at two-thirds strength due to the slow Russian mobilization.Prittwitz, certain that he could not hold against the two armies facing him, informed high command that he intended to withdraw to the Vistula River, abandoning most of East Prussia including Königsberg
39 Battle of TannenbergPrittwitz was relieved of duty and replaced by Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg and his new Chief-of-Staff, Erich Ludendorf.Along with the staff at East Prussian Army Headquarters, they planned a counteroffensive against the Russians.By August 27 they had already laid the plans and fallen on Samsonov's weak Army, taking it in both flanks in a near perfect double envelopmentThe Battle of Tannenberg ended by August 30 when Samsonov's entire command disintegrated at a cost of 92,000 captured and tens of thousands of other casualties.
40 Battle of Tannenberg May-August 1914 Germans & Austrians push Russiansout of East Prussia & Carpathian Mts.Russians retreat beyond Brest-Litovsk,Poland.Russia--one million killed or wounded;one million captured.
41 Battle of the Masurian Lakes German forces under General August Mackensen defeated Rennenkampf at the Battle of Masurian Lakes within a weekthe Russians lost another 100,000 casualtiesinadequate logistic support hampered Russian movement and supply.against an industrialized opponent, these shortcomings quickly assumed catastrophic proportions.
42 The Austrians Attack…In the south of Poland, Austrian Chief-of-Staff Conrad von Hoetzendorf launched his own attack northward toward WarsawRussia had concentrated four fully supplied armies opposite the 39 Divisions of Austrian troops, and on August 30 they opened their offensivethird week in September: Hoetzendorf ordered a general retreat.province of Galicia was abandoned by the Austrians at a cost of over 130,000 casualties!year ended with limited attacks toward Warsaw by Mackensen and Russian probing assaults into the Carpathian passes.
43 The Winter War ofWinter : von Hoetzendorf appealed to the Germans to support an offensive he hoped would force the Russians off the Carpathian MountainsGerman senior command agreed on a thrust deep into Russian lines out of East Prussiaresulting "winter war" inflicted 90,000 casualties on the Russians, but petered out when the Austrian forces to the south utterly failed to dislodged the Russians.Austria suffered another embarrassing defeat, and even lost control of Dukla Pass, a prime route onto the Hungarian plainssevere weather and their unfortunate supply situation prevented the Russians from moving into Austria-Hungary
44 German ControlMay 1915: Germans took over command of the Eastern Frontused their units to support the fragmented Austrian formationsnext offensive came on May 1, with a sharp attack on the Russian lines at Gorliceoffensive penetrated more than two-hundred miles in two weekstriggered the collapse of the entire Russian Southern FrontGerman and Austrian formations pushed northward capturing Warsaw in AugustSeptember: Gen. Max von Gallwitz' Twelfth Army attacked into the Courland toward RigaRussian front line fell apartstrongholds of Novo-Georgiesk and Brest-Litovsk fell to the GermansTook until the end of September for the Russian line to re-form
45 The Eastern FrontRussian army moved into Eastern Germany on August 30, 1914DefeatedThe Austrians kicked out of SerbiaItalians attacked Austria in 1915G. came to Austrian aid and pushed Russians back 300 miles into own territory
46 Nicholas Takes Command Russian Tsar Nicholas intervened and assumed personal command of the armydecision would have grave consequences.territory captured by the Central Powers to date included all of Poland, Lithuania and Latvia.two million Russian troops were lost during the course of the year, half of them prisonersCentral Powers of Germany and Austria-Hungary lost a total of nearly one-million
47 Russia’s Responsenext major offensive undertaken by Russian General Alexi Brusilovpreparations far superior to those undertaken by previous senior officersRussian units finally trained to employ shock troops followed up by mutually supporting open order formationsWestern Allied aid and Russian production replaced all equipment losses from the previous yearcompeting egos of commanders and the inefficient supply system deadened any spectacular successes.June 1916: Brusilov's four armies, the Eighth, Eleventh, Seventh and Ninth poised along the Galician border facing the Austrian ArmyJune 4th: Russians attacked and immediately penetrated deep into Austrian positions, capturing 13,000 prisoners on the first dayW/in two months, the Austro-Hungarian Empire was in danger of falling
48 A Romanian Whoopsy Romania entered the war on the side of the allies invaded Transylvania instead of preparing an adequate defense.mistake gave the Germans the opening they neededensuing counter-offensive achieved the total collapse of Romania to the Central PowersGermany and Austria gained control of vast coal and wheat fields, but added over 200 miles of front to their lines
49 Brusilov’s OffensiveBrusilov urged by St. Petersburg to continue his summer gains even though the Russians had suffered horrible casualtiesSeptember: offensive was continued without the same elegance as earliercasualties climbed toward the one-million mark.offensive finally wound down after the seizure of Bukovina and Galiciaaccomplishments brought Russia just as many casualties as their defeats of the previous yeardiscipline began to slide downward
50 Troubles All Round…Russian industry proved unable to continue manufacturing new equipment in sufficient quantities to replace staggering losses, especially in small arms and ammunition.Late 1916: several nations across Europe began to suffer from mutinies and revolts as troops became disillusionedRussia slowly edged toward open revoltdual monarchy of Austria-Hungary edged toward complete dissolution.
51 Russian Disintegration 1917--the Russian Army's officer corps increasingly demoralized by the poor progress of the fightingGrossly outnumbered Germans had proven to be dangerous and cunning opponentsRussian royal family's intervention didn’t improve anythingrepeated catastrophes suffered by Russian field armies squelched what patriotism had existed three years earlierentire governing system slowly fell apartby March, some Army units began ignoring their orderssituation made worse as growing Communist rebel groups exaggerated reports of minor events: I.e. revolt of a Russian Guard depot formation at Petrograd (carried out by trainees and depot troops, not by fully trained Imperial Guardsmen)
52 British Blockade of Germany – Nov. 1914 Attempt to starve GermanyBritish mine North SeaExtension of definition of contrabandBritain invades German colonies in East Africa
53 Germany Retaliates German fleet inferior to British Germany uses submarine warfare1915 Zone of warfare around Britain –sink all merchant vesselsAttempt to starve BritainUnterseebooten – U boats
54 Germans torpedo passenger ships Lusitania – British ship4,200 cases of Remington rifle cartridgesFuses, empty shrapnel shellsBritain compromised non-belligerent status of shipsBritain starts to use convoys
55 U.S. economic interests: Result of Blockade U.S. trade with Germany and Austria (1914: $169 Million; 1916: $1 Million)U.S. trade with England and Allies (1914: $825 Million; 1916: $3,214 Million)U.S. bank loans to England and Allies (March April 1917: $2 Billion plus)
59 The War Reaches a Stalemate The First Battle of the Marne ended in a stalemate, and both French and German soldiers dug trenches, or deep ditches, to defend their positions and seek shelter from enemy fire.By late 1914, two massive systems of trenches stretched 400 miles across Western Europe, and the battle lines known as the Western Front extended from Switzerland to the North Sea.Trench warfare, or fighting from trenches, was an old strategy that had been used in Africa, Asia, and the Americas.This trench warfare, however, was different because of its scale.Soldiers lived in trenches, surrounded by machine-gun fire, flying grenades, and exploding artillery shells.Opposing forces had machine guns pointed at enemy trenches at all times, firing whenever a helmet or rifle appeared over the top.Thousands of men that ran into the area between the trenches, known as “no-man’s-land,” were chopped down by enemy fire.Neither the Allies nor the Germans were able to make significant advances, creating a stalemate, or deadlock.
60 The Western Front “The Race with Death” -- “Going over the top” -- “No Man’s Land”Gap between officers and enlisted menDaily routine of the World War I soldier
62 Trench Warfare Technology superior to tactics Very high death rates Machine gun versus a human charge through "No man's land"New technology = poison gas, airplanesVery high death ratesBattle of the Somme = 600,000 allied and 500,000 German dead for 125 miles of landBattle of Verdun = 700,000 killed on both sides with no gain in territory
63 Trench Warfare From Erich Remarque's All Quiet on the Western Front "We see men living with their skulls blown open; we see soldiers run with their two feet cut off… Still the little piece of convulsed earth in which we lie is held. We have yielded no more than a few hundred yards of it as a prize to the enemy. But on every yard there lies a dead man."
65 YPRESFirst Battle of Ypres was last major battle of the first year (1914)This battle marked the end of the Race to the Sea where Germans tried to reach French ports of Calais and Dunkirk, which were the main supply routes for the British Expeditionary Force.Germans called the battle "The Massacre of the Innocents" (German "Kindermord").Many of German units consisted of enthusiastic students. Their offensive had been stopped by a British force, which although outnumbered was highly professional having learned many lessons from the Boer War.The BEF was effectively destroyed at First Ypres but bought the British valuable time to reinforce the lines
66 Battle of Ypres, Belgium November 1914 Last open Battle of the Western FrontBritish and French halt German advance toEnglish ChannelGerman & French Casualties:300,000 killed; 600,000 wounded
67 1915 January 19, 1915 First German Zeppelin air raid on England. February 4 Germany declares a submarine blockade of Great Britain. Any boat approaching England is considered a legitimate target.April 22-May 5 Second Battle of Ypres marks first use of chemical weapons.April 25 Allies begin assault on Gallipoli peninsula in Turkey.May 7 Sinking of the passenger ship Lusitania.May 23 Italy declares war on Austria-Hungary.August 30 Germany responds to U.S. anger by ceasing to sink ships without warning.December 28 Allies begin withdrawal of troops from Gallipoli.
68 Second Battle of Ypres April 22-May 31, 1915 The Second Battle of Ypres involved four battles around Ypres. The first of these four battles began on 22 April 1915 as a surprise offensive by the German 4th Army on the Allied front line.This attack saw the first use of a new German weapon on the Western Front: poisonous gas. A breeze moving towards French troops carried the deadly gas. It had a devastating effect on the French and the German infantry made a significant advance into Allied territory.During the next four weeks the Allied Forces of Belgium, France and Britain fought to hold off the successful German advance and to regain the ground that had been lost north of Ypres. The fourth battle ended on 25 May 1915.
69 YPRES X3The Battle of Ypres includes three battles. They were fought in Ypres, Belgium.The town of Ypres was always under attack from the Germans because it was a key point in keeping them from the English Channel.
95 Battles on the Western Front While people on the home front supported their troops, the war in Western Europe was going badly for the Allied Powers.Italy joined Allied Powers, May 1915Sent forces against Austria-Hungary at border with ItalySeries of back-and-forth battlesLittle progress madeThe Italian FrontGermans planned assault on French fortress, VerdunBelieved French would defend fortress at all costsBattle of Verdun meant to kill, injure as many French soldiers as possible400,000 French casualties in 10 months of fighting, almost as many for GermanyThe Battle of Verdun
97 The Third Battle of Ypres The Battle of the SommeBritish launched attack in Somme River area to pull German troops away from VerdunMain assault during 1916, but no major breakthroughBoth sides lost great number of troops; British suffered nearly 60,000 casualties on the first day of fightingThe Third Battle of YpresFailed French offensive caused rebellion among French soldiers, spring 1917British began offensive near Ypres, Belgium, site of German attacksThird Battle of Ypres a disaster for BritishAfter 3 years of battle, front lines remained virtually unchanged
99 Case Studies in Industrial Warfare Battles of AttritionThe Battle of Verdun (February-June, 1916)--German attack opened by most massive military bombardment in history--longest single battle of the war--The “sacred road”--600,000 men died
100 The Battle of Verdun February 21. 1916 – July 1916 The Allies had planned to launch a joint French and British assault in the region of the Somme. The target date was the middle of However, in February the Allied plan was upset when the Germans began an assault on the fortress-ringed city of Verdun. The belief was that Verdun was essential to the French that France would fight to the death. On February 21, the German artillery barrage began and, for the next several months both sides unleashed soldiers and shells at each By Christmas, when the battle finally ended, 800,000 men had lost their lives.One hundred and twenty-five miles northwest of Verdun, the British and French armies joined at the Somme river. A French-British offensive was planned here for 1916 to relieve pressure on the French at Verdun.
101 Battle of Verdun February-July 1916 Germans believed they could win a war of attritionw/ Allies.Verdun, a series of fortifications in rolling hills.Almost 1,000,000 killed or wounded.French lost 325,000 (90,000 killed), in one assault at“Dead Man’s Hill.”
102 Battle of Verdun 1916 24 million shells used equates to 1,000 shells per square meter of theBattlefield.
103 VERDUN "They shall not pass." -Philippe Pétain fought between Feb and Dec 1916.resulted in nearly one million deaths and an additional 450,000 wounded and missing.one of longest and bloodiest battles in history.
104 VERDUNDouaumont Ossuary (remains of 130,000 unknown soldiers) and National cemetery (15,000 graves of identified French soldiers).Germany captured a centre of France's fortifications -Fort Douaumont but could not capture Verdun itself.
105 VerdunGermans assaulted French forces with massive artillery barrage and then advanced on French trenches using flamethrowers for the first time.
106 VERDUN AFTERMATHapparent successes of fixed fortification system (with the exception of Fort Douaumont) led to adoption of the Maginot Line as preferred method of defense along the Franco-German border during the inter-war years.France's army was plagued not with desertions, but rather with a general refusal to march face-first into the teeth of Germany's impregnable positions.France's troops remained in their trenches, willing to fight only in a defensive capacity.
107 The Battle of Verdun was fought from Feb. 21, 1916 through Dec It was between the French and Germans. The French won.The French suffered 371,000 casualties; the Germans suffered 337,000 casualities. Many men were also maimed.The battle became a symbol of French determination to hold ground and repel the enemy at any cost.
108 Case Studies of Industrial Warfare (cont) The Battle of the Somme (July-November, 1916)--Seven Days and Seven Nights of British bombardment--60,000 British dead in 12 minutes--1 million dead for just 7 miles of landThe Changing atmosphere of War--complete breakdown of human existence
109 The Battle of the Somme July 1,1916 –November 1916 The Allies had planned to launch a joint French and British assault in the region of the Somme. The target date was the middle of However, in February the Allied plan was upset when the Germans began an assault on the fortress-ringed city of Verdun.The belief was that Verdun was essential to the French that France would fight to the death. On February 21, the German artillery barrage began and, for the next several months both sides unleashed soldiers and shells at each By Christmas, when the battle finally ended, 800,000 men had lost their lives.During this horrendous fighting, the French sent frantic appeals to Sir Douglas Haig, the new British commander, to hasten the Somme offensive and to take the pressure off Verdun.
110 Battle of the Somme July-Nov. 1916 British & French felt a massive assault on German forceswould turn tide of war.After a week of constant bombardment, the British cameout of their trenches.By the end of the first day, British casualties were 110, 000(19,000 dead).
111 BATTLE OF THE SOMME1916- Battle of the Somme was one of the largest battles, with more than one million casualties. The British and French forces attempted to break through the German lines along a 25 mile (40 km) front north and south of the River Somme in northern France. One purpose of the battle was to draw German forces away from the battle of Verdun; however, by its end the losses on the Somme had exceeded those at Verdun
112 BATTLE OF THE SOMMEThe battle is best remembered for its first day, 1 July 1916, on which the British suffered 57,470 casualties of which 19,240 were killed or died of wounds. It remains the bloodiest day in the history of the British Army.
113 BATTLE OF THE SOMME MOVIE For the first time the home front in Britain was exposed to the horrors of modern war with the release of the propaganda film, The Battle of the Somme which used actual footage from the first days of the battle.The film spanned five reels and lasted 63 minutes . It was first screened on 10 August, 1916, while the battle was still raging.On 21 August the film began showing simultaneously in 34 London cinemas.
114 SOMME MOVIE CONT…film was screened for British soldiers at rest in France where it provided new recruits with some idea of what they were about to face. Soldier's main complaint was failure of film to capture sounds of battle. However, as a silent film, the titles could be remarkably forthright, describing images of injury and death.film was shown to British public as a morale booster and was favourably received. British public's response to film was enormous with an estimated 20 million tickets being sold in two months. On this basis, The Battle of the Somme remains one of the most successful British films ever.
115 Battle of the Somme 1916Britain lost 420,000; France-200,000; Germany-650,000.More British soldiers died in the first three days at the Somme thanAmericans in WWI, Korea & Vietnam combined.Ends in a Stalemate
116 The Battle of Passchendaele 31 July 1917 – 10 November 1917This battle was fought for control of the city of Passchendaele.The city was located on a ridge that sat above the rest of the land, offering whoever had control of the city a strategic advantage in the war.The plan was to drive through the German forces and reach the Belgium coast where they would capture the submarine bases located there.Also, by distracting the Germans there would be less pressure on the French, who were suffering from low morale.
117 Where oh where~ Ypres, West Flanders, Belgium Mud soaked, hell ridden, shell molested badlands!
118 WhenThe battle of Passendale was apart of a campaign which is also known as the Third Battle of Ypres.The campaign lasted from July 31st to November 10th, 1917There had been previous battles revolving around the district of Ypres in both 1915 and 1916.
119 The sides!BritainFranceCanadaAustraliaNew ZealandGerman Empire
120 Entente Commanders Alliance Commanders Douglas Haig Hubert Gough Herbert PlumerArthur CurrieMax von GallwitzErich Ludendorff
121 Douglas Haig, 1st Earl Haig He was a British soldier and senior commander during World War I.He was commander of the British Expeditionary Force during the Battle of the Somme and the 3rd Battle of Ypres.His tenure as commander of the BEF made Haig one of the most controversial military commanders in British history
122 Hubert Gough Sir Hubert de la Poer Gough Gough was a cavalry officer who, as a favourite of the British Commander-in-Chief, General Sir Douglas Haig, experienced a meteoric rise through the ranks during the war.
123 Herbert Plumer, 1st Viscount Plumer Plumer was an Infantry officer and as a result it could be argued that he understood somewhat better what could reasonably be expected of his troops bearing in mind the terrain, the weather conditions and morale.Plumer, a meticulous planner, would often express the plans of the his superiors as being too ambitous and more often than not, as seen at the third battle of Ypres, Passchendaele he would be proved to be right.
124 Arthur Currie General Sir Arthur William Currie He made sure all troops were able to perform platoon responsibilities, briefing of the frontline troops, the use of counter-battery fire measures and constant patrolling of the enemy defenses all contributed to the effectiveness of the Canadian Corps at Vimy and for the rest of the War.Currie and the Canadian Corps were successful again at Passchendaele (the Third Battle of Ypres) in November, but at the cost of 16,000 men.Currie had accurately predicted these high casualty figures when Haig ordered his troops to attack.
125 Max von Gallwitz Max Karl Wilhelm von Gallwitz Gallwitz began the war as a corps commander on the Western Front, but was almost immediately transferred east to join the Eighth Army under Hindenburg.In 1915 he took command of Army Group Gallwitz
126 Erich Ludendorff General Erich Ludendorff In World War I Ludendorff was first appointed Deputy chief of staff to Germany's Second Army, under Karl von Bülow, as he was knowledgeable about capturing the forts of Liege.This was a crucial part of the Schlieffen Plan.This task accomplished, Ludendorff was sent to East Prussia where he worked with Paul von Hindenburg as his Chief of Staff.Hindenburg relied heavily upon Ludendorff and Hoffmann in crafting his victories in the battles of Tannenberg and the Masurian Lakes.
127 Significance The city of Passchendaele has strategic significance. You must pass through here in order to reach the coast.The ports located there are a key part shipping equipment and goods.This battle was important to the Belgium people because it was the last city left free of German rule.Upon arriving at Passchendaele with Canadian Troops, Canada’s Commander-in-Chief General Sir Arthur Currie estimated that 16,000 would die in order to complete this task.Passchendaele is the current spelling for the city of Passchendaele, and it’s old spelling is used specifically as a reference to the battle.
128 PASSCHENDAELEBattle of Passchendaele, otherwise known as Third Battle of Ypres, fought by British, ANZAC, & Canadian soldiers against German army near Ypresvillage is now known as Passendale, the term Passchendaele alone is now used to refer to this battle. The label "Passchendaele" should properly apply only to battle's later actions in Oct–Nov 1917, but has come to be applied also to the entire campaign from July 31. After three months of fierce fighting, the Canadians took Passchendaele on Nov 6, 1917, ending the battle.
129 PASSCHENDAELE "...I died in Hell (they called it Passchendaele) my wound was slightand I was hobbling back; and then a shellburst slick upon the duckboards; so I fellinto the bottomless mud, and lost the light"-- Siegfried Sassoon
130 WeaponryMark IV Tanks were used by the British, mainly in the battle of Messiness Hill – just prior and South of the battle of Passchendaele (Third battle of Ypres)
132 Strategies“Bite and Hold” : where the attackers were to gain a small portion of front, and hold it against counter-attacks.1,295 guns were concentrated in the areaGermans had artillery accurately aimed in No-Man’s Land.
133 ConditionsGround conditions during the whole Ypres-Passchendaele action were atrocious.Continuous shelling destroyed drainage canals in the area, and unseasonable heavy rain turned the whole area into a sea of mud and water-filled shell-craters.The troops walked up to the front over paths made of duckboards laid across the mud, often carrying up to one hundred pounds (45 kg) of equipment.It was possible for them to slip off the path into the craters and drown before they could be rescued.The trees were reduced to blunted trunks, the branches and leaves torn away, and the bodies of men buried after previous actions were often uncovered by the rain or later shelling.
134 First battle of Passchendaele produced 13,000 Allied casualties; which stacked on top of the 100,000 dead already.Germans lost about 270,000 men.British Empire forces lost about 450,000, including 36,500 Australians and 16,000 Canadians - the latter of which were lost in the intense final assault between October 26 and November 10;90,000 British and Australian bodies were never identified, and 42,000 never recovered.Casualties
135 Quotations (they called it Passchendaele); my wound was slight The man beside him, who had been through the campaign, replied tonelessly, 'It's worse further on up.'"— Leon Wolff, In Flanders Fields"Passchendaele was just a terrible, terrible place. We used to walk along these wooden duckboards - something like ladders laid on the ground. The Germans would concentrate on these things. If a man was hit and wounded and fell off he could easily drown in the mud and never be seen again. You just did not want go off the duckboards." — Private Richard W. Mercer (911016)"I died in Hell(they called it Passchendaele); my wound was slightand I was hobbling back; and then a shellburst slick upon the duckboards; so I fellinto the bottomless mud, and lost the light"— Siegfried Sassoon
137 Iron Maiden: Passchendaele In a foreign field he lay lonely soldier unknown grave on his dying words he prays tell the WORLD of Paschendale Relive all that he's been through last communion of his soul rust your bullets with his tears let me tell you 'bout his years Laying low in a blood filled trench killing time 'til my very own death on my face I can feel the falling rain never see my friends again in the smoke, in the mud and lead smell of fear and feeling of dread soon be time to go over the wall rapid fire and the end of us allWhistles, shouts and more gun fire lifeless bodies hang on barbed wire battlefield nothing but a bloody tomb be reunited with my dead friends soon many soldiers eighteen years drown in mud, no more tears surely a war no one can win killing time about to begin Home, far away. From the war, a chance to live again Home, far away. But the war, no chance to live again
138 The bodies of ours and our foes the sea of death it overflows in no man's land God only knows into jaws of death we go... Crucified as if on a cross allied troops, they mourn their loss German war propaganda machine such before has never been seen swear I heard the angels cry pray to God no more may die so that people know the truth tell the tale of Paschendale Cruelty has a human heart everyman does play his part terror of the men we kill the human heart is hungry stillI stand my ground for the very last time gun is ready as I stand in line nervous wait for the whistle to blow rush of blood and over we go... Blood is falling like the rain its crimson cloak unveils again the sound of guns can't hide their shame and so we die in Paschendale
139 Dodging shrapnel and barbed wire running straight at cannon fire running blind as I hold my breath say a prayer symphony of death as we charge the enemy lines a burst of fire and we go down I choke a cry but no one hears feel the blood go down my throat Home, far away. From the war, a chance to live again Home, far away. But the war, no chance to live again Home, far away. From the war, a chance to live again Home, far away. But the war, no chance to live again See my spirit on the wind across the lines beyond the hill friend and foe will meet again those who died at Paschendale
140 VIMY RIDGE seminal event in Canadian history Vimy, located in northern France, was one of most heavily defended points on Western Front and was thought to be impregnable.Germans fortified it with tunnels, 3 rows of trenches behind barbed wire, and numerous machine gun nests. French and British had suffered thousands of casualties in previous attempts to take Ridge; the French alone lost men at Vimy in The ridge was a crucial point that allowed Germans to control much of surrounding territory.Canadians determined to learn from mistakes of French and British and spent months planning their attack.Built a replica of the Ridge behind own lines, and trained using platoon-level tactics, including issuing detailed maps to ordinary soldiers rather than officers or NCOs alone.Each platoon given a specific task by commanding officers, rather than vague instructions from an absent general.employed older techniques such as detonation of large mines under German trenches.
141 VIMY RIDGEOn April 2, 1917, the Canadians launched largest artillery barrage in history up to that point. They shelled the German trenches for the next week, using over one million shells. The attack was loud enough that it could be heard in London.Easter Monday, April 9, the strong Canadians began the attack, using a creeping barrage, a new technique whereby soldiers walked across No-Man's Land just behind a continuous line of shellsAfter less than two hours, three of the four Canadian divisions had taken their objectives; the fourth division, however, was caught by the machine gun nests on the highest point of the Ridge known as Hill 145. The 87th Battalion suffered 50% casualties.
142 VIMY RIDGE CONT…By April 12 the Canadians controlled the entire Ridge, at a cost of 3598 men killed and 7104 wounded. The Germans suffered approximately casualties. The Canadians also took 4,000 German POWs.It was the first time in Canadian history that its army fought as a complete organization in an independent battle.The capture of the Ridge by the Canadian Corps, under the command of British General Julian H.G. Byng with Canadian General Sir Arthur Currie acting as Chief-of-Staff), was a turning point for Allies.The success of the Canadian forces in this battle and others earned them a place at the post-war peace negotiations, a clear mark of the nation's independence from Britain.
144 Wider InvolvementOttomans entered war in 1915 on side of the Central PowersWanted to acquire Russian territoryTurkey slaughtered millions of Armenians to get their landBritain wanted to protect trade routes to IndiaArabs promised their own country if they would join with Britain against the Ottomans
145 Battle of Salonika, Greece Nov. 1915 Allies aided Serbia againstBulgaria(joined Central PowersOctober 1915).By December, Serbia crushed byGermany, Aust-Hungary, & BulgariaTied up 500,000 Allied troops.
146 War around the World Spring 1915 Major Loss Much of the early fighting took place in Europe, but the conflict quickly became a true world war as fighting spread around the globe. Over 30 nations officially took sides in the war.Ottoman Empire joined Central Powers, late 1914Controlled sea passage, DardanellesUsed by Allies to ship supplies to RussiaGallipoli CampaignAllies landed force on Gallipoli PeninsulaAttempted to destroy guns, forts on DardanellesGave up after months of fighting, 200,000 deathsSpring 1915Ottoman subjects in Arabian Peninsula rebelled later in warBritish sent T.E. Lawrence to support ArabsArabs overthrew Ottoman ruleMajor Loss
147 The Global Nature of WWI In 1915 Britain landed British, Australian & New Zealand troops at Gallipoli in the Dardanelles Straits in an attempt to:a) knock Turkey out of the warb) open up access to the Black Sea & RussiaThe campaign would be a disaster as Gallipoli is one of the most easily defended territories in the world – high cliffs, small beachheads – over 50% of the Allies troops were killed or wounded (approx. 250,000)Both France & Britain mobilized troops from their African colonies – usually in support roles (construction, guard duty) – more than 2 ½ million participated in some wayBritain mobilized forces from India to fight against the Ottomans in the Middle East – T.E. Lawrence (Lawrence of Arabia) persuaded Arab princes to rise up against the Ottomans – by 1917 much of their former empire had revoltedJapan & Australia attacked & seized German colonies in PacificThe Ottoman Empire waged a campaign of genocide against the Armenians in the Caucasus – killing over 1 million & displacing millions more – Adolf Hitler studied this event intensely & noted the lack of response from the world to stop the slaughter
148 War around the World Armenian Massacre Caucasus Use of Force Different conflict elsewhere in Ottoman Empire during Gallipoli CampaignRussia launched attack in CaucasusCaucasusMountain region between Black and Caspian seasHome to ethnic Christian Armenians, minority in Muslim Ottoman EmpireUse of ForceOttoman leaders claimed Armenians aided RussiansBegan forcibly removing Armenians from Caucasus, spring 1915Violence, starvation600,000 Armenians died in massacreOttoman leaders accused of genocide, destruction of racial, political or cultural group
149 Turkish Genocide Against Armenians A Portent of Future Horrors to Come!
150 Turkish Genocide Against Armenians Districts & Vilayets of Western Armenia in Turkey19141922Erzerum215,0001,500Van197,000500Kharbert204,00035,000Diarbekir124,0003,000Bitlis220,00056,000Sivas225,00016,800Other Armenian-populated Sites in TurkeyWestern Anatolia371,80027,000Cilicia and Northern Syria309,00070,000European Turkey194,000163,000Trapizond District73,39015,000Total2,133,190387,800
151 Battle of Gallipoli April-Dec. 1915 Objectives:Open the Dardanelles to supply Russiathrough the Black Sea.Prevent Turks from disrupting SuezCanal trade.Strengthen British colonial interestsin the Middle East.
153 Gallipoli CampaignThe Gallipoli Campaign was an attempt to gain control of the Dardanelles and capture Constantinople. This would open a Black Sea supply route to Russia. The idea originated with Winston Churchill, then First Lord of the Admiralty. After the failure (March 1915) of a British naval force to open the straits, British, Australian, and New Zealand troops landed (Apr. 25) at various points on the east coast of the Gallipoli Peninsula, while a French force landed on the Asian side of the straits. The Turks were ready and prevented the Allies from making any important gains.Churchill’s plan failed due to Allied bureaucratic incompetence. Allied cooperation was poor and there was lack of coordination between land and naval forces. The result was a premature naval attack without sufficient support from the army. The two-month delay between the navy's arrival at Gallipoli (Feb., 1915) and the arrival of land forces (Apr., 1915) gave the Turkish army plenty of time to reinforce its troops. The landing (Aug., 1915) at Suvla on the west coast of the peninsula was followed by months of costly fighting. Eventually, the Allies withdrew from the area on Jan. 9, The evacuation, unlike the attack, has been described by some as brilliantly executed.
154 Gallipoli 1915 Allied troops, mostly ANZUS (Australian & NZ, lost between ,000 before retreating.
155 GALLIPOLIThe Battle of Gallipoli took place on the Turkish peninsula of Gallipoli in A combined Allied operation was mounted in order to eventually capture the Ottoman capital of Constantinople. The attempt failed, and an estimated 131,000 soldiers were killed and 262,000 wounded.In Britain it is called the Dardanelles Campaign and in Australia and New Zealand it is known simply as Gallipoli
157 GALLIPOLI MOVIEThe film Gallipoli (1981) is an account of several young men from rural Western Australia who enlist in the Australian armed forces. They are sent to Turkey, where they take part in the Battle of Gallipoli.It stars Mel Gibson.The climax of the movie occurs on the Anzac battlefield at Gallipoli and depicts the ill-fated attack at the Nek on the morning of the August 7, 1915
159 War around the World Other Fighting War also fought in Asia and Africa Japan declared war on GermanyPart of military agreement with Great BritainJapanese captured German colonies in ChinaBritish, French attacked German colonies in AfricaAllied colonies scattered around world made contributions to warSome colonists worked as laborers to keep armies suppliedOthers fought, died in battles in hope of winning independenceHopes were in vain
160 Russian Collapse & U.S. Entry into WWI (1917) Despite having the world’s largest army, technological & industrial production deficiencies plagued the Russian army – they quickly began to suffer huge losses & shortages on food, munitions, clothing & other essentialsBy 1917 Russia had suffered 5 million dead/wounded, civil unrest was widespread & mutiny was commonplace within Russian military unitsCzar Nicholas II abdicated the throne in 1917 ending the Romanov Dynasty (300 years) – eventually the Bolshevik Party (Communists) took power & signed a peace agreement w/ Germany in 1918 – they lost significant territory & a new form of gov’t had emerged – this event re-forged the attitude that Germany could win the warThe U.S. had proclaimed a policy of neutrality & isolationism during WWI – but continued to openly trade w/ Britain & supply them w/ military materiel – this led Germany to declare “Unrestricted Submarine Warfare” on all ships in the Atlantic – both military & civilianThe sinking of the Lusitania (a civilian liner) in 1917 & the Zimmerman Telegram – a German offer to Mexico to declare war on the US pushed the US into WWIThe US would first see battle in 1918 & their presence dramatically tilted the balance of the war – Germany now clearly had no chance of winning – though they were not decisively defeatedAbove – Bolsheviks storm the Czar’s Winter Palace; Below – The NY Times announces the sinking of the Lusitania
161 Zimmermann Telegram 1917“make war together, make peace together, generous financial support and an understanding on our part that Mexico is to reconquer the lost territory in Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona.”
163 "We are glad ... to fight thus for the ultimate peace of the world and for the liberation of its peoples, the German peoples included. . . The world must be made safe for democracy. We desire no conquest, no dominion. We seek no indemnities for ourselves, no material compensation for the sacrifices we shall freely make. We are but one of the champions of the rights of mankind....--W. Wilson Message to Congress April 2, 1917.
164 Selective Service 1917Less than 100,000 volunteer in first weeks – 1 million neededSupervised decentralizationLocal draft boards24 million men registered 23% pop4.8 million serve
165 United States War at sea initiated US involvement Americans initially supplied both the Allies and the Central PowersBlockade brought sinking of US shipsGermans killed 1000 AmericansAmericans entered the war on side of the AlliesTipped the balance in trench warfareGeneral Jack Pershing
166 Russian Revolution Unhappiness with the war among the Russian people Germany/Austria beating RussiansChanges in governmentLenin transportedMensheviks (moderates) victoriousBolshevik counter revolutionRussia withdraws from warGermany ready to have a single front war
168 1917February 1, 1917 Germany again declares unrestricted submarine warfare.April 6 The United States declares war on Germany.July 6 T.E. Lawrence and the Arabs capture Aquaba.July 16-November 10 Third Battles of Ypres, known as Passchendaele, results in minor gains, but still no breakthrough.November 7 Bolshevik socialists, led by Lenin, overthrow Kerensky's government.December 3 The new Russian government, represented by Leon Trotsky, signs an armistice with Germany.December 9 British capture Jerusalem.
169 1918: The End NearsLeft: Over four months in 1918 the German army launched five major assaults at different parts of he allied line. Initially the plan worked. But for every allied trench captured, there was always another for the Germans to take. Soon the elite German storm troopers were a depleted force. As desperation set in, the Germans resorted to the tactic of mass assault. Large numbers of casualties resulted.The Hindenburg Line- the last and strongest of the German army's defence - consisted of three well-defended trench systems established in Throughout September 1918, Australian forces had helped the British army to secure positions from which an attack on the Hindenburg Line could be launched.On 18 September 1918, an attack was launched on the first part of the Hindenburg Line.Troops, supported by huge artillery barrages, attacked the heavily fortified German defences and machine-gun posts. Using only eight tanks (as well as dummy tanks) to distract the Germans 4,300 prisoners were taken.On 29 September, the line was finally broken.. The fighting lasted four days and resulted in heavy losses. Eventually, the Allies broke through the third and final stage of the Hindenburg Line, and the Germans were forced to fall back.
170 1918January 8, 1918 President Woodrow Wilson declares his 14 points as the path to world peace.March 21 Germans launch the first of five major offensives to win the war before American troops appear in the trenches.April 25 British and Australian troops stop the German advance near AmiensMay 23 German shells land on Paris.August 8 Allied counteroffensives on the Somme push the German army back.September 29 Allied troops break through the German fortifications at the Hindenberg line.November 11 At eleven o'clock on the eleventh day of the eleventh month of 1918, the war ends as Germany and Allies sign an Armistice.
171 Battle of Belleau Wood – June, 1918 · This was the first battle involving U.S. troops.· The Germans were defeated after three weeks of battle.* The Allied defense of Paris was the turning point of the war."American Marines in Belleau Wood” (1918) Georges Scott ( )
172 Battle for Belleau Wood 4 June 1918 Germans reach their “high water mark”, but are turned back by 5th Marines at Les Mares Farms, 50 miles from Paris.5 June 1918, 4th Marine Brigade (5th and 6th Regiments, 6th Machine Gun Battalion) enters Belleau Wood to stop German advance. French are retreating as Marines arrive. One Frenchman advises Marines to join the retreat, Capt Lloyd Williams replies “Retreat, hell. We just got here.”Marines begin picking off Germans at 800 yards (200 yds considered far to Germans)
173 Belleau WoodJune 6 1/5 charges twice. Sustains 410 and 1087 casualties, respectively. Marines gain toe hold on woods.Dan Daly: “Come on you sons of bitches. Do you want to live forever?”Marines fight until 16 June when an Army unit relieves them22 June Marines reenter fight.26 June Maj Shearer sends signal, “Woods are now entirely US Marine Corps.”Victory was not the product of sound tactics, but of the discipline and determination of the Brigade.
174 Teufel Hunden Devil Dog title given Marines by Germans “Teufel Hunden” “The 2nd American Division must be considered a very good one, and may perhaps even be reckoned as storm troops. The different attacks on Belleau Wood were carried out with bravery and dash. The moral effect of our gunfire cannot seriously impede the advance of the American riflemen.” German intel dispatch
175 In view of the brilliant conduct of the 4th Marine Brigade… which in a spirited fight captured… Belleau Wood, fiercely defended by the enemy in force, the Commanding General, VI Army, decrees that henceforth in all official papers, Belleau Wood shall bear the name, Bois De La Brigade De Marine.”French citation dated 30 June 1918I believe they are soldiers from Montezuma. At least when they advanced this morning they were all singing “From the Halls of Montezuma, to the Shores of Tripoli.”French soldier describing the unit fighting on his regiment’s right during WWI.
176 Battle of the Argonne Forest – Sept.-Oct., 1918 · The battle was fought in an attempt to push Germany further out of France.
177 American gunners battle through the Argonne Forest. · After forty-seven days and heavy casualties, the Germans retreated.American gunners battle through the Argonne Forest.
178 The War Ends The Germans’ Last Offensive Allies Push Forward At midnight on July 14, 1918, the Germans launched their last offensive at the Second Battle of the Marne.U.S. blew up every bridge the Germans built across the Marne River, and the German army retreated on August 3, after suffering 150,000 casualties.The Allies began a counterattack in September 1918 and, fighting as a separate army for the first time, defeated German troops at Mihiel, near the French-German border.Allies Push ForwardAllies continued their advance toward the French city of Sedan on the Belgian border, which held the main German supply railway.By November, the Allies had reached and occupied the hills around Sedan.The ArmisticeBy 1918 the war crippled the German economy, causing food strikes and riots, and revolution swept across Austria-Hungary.The Central Powers lacked the will to continue and started to surrender.Austria-Hungary, and then Germany, surrendered, and the Allies demanded that Germany surrender its weapons and allow Allied occupation of some areas.
179 Casualties & Cost Armistice signed on November 11, 1918 @ 11 am 10 million soldiers killed, 20 million wounded
180 WWI by the Numbers Over 8 million Military Deaths Over 21 million woundedOver 2 million missingCost of $337 billion (1918 Dollars)Over 2 million civilian deathsAn additional 20+ million will die from the 1918 global flu (Spanish Flu) epidemic – not directly related to the war
181 * Approximately 13 million people died and 20 million were wounded in the war.