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Lean & Agile Project Management

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Presentation on theme: "Lean & Agile Project Management"— Presentation transcript:

1 Lean & Agile Project Management
Dr. David F. Rico, PMP, CSM Website: LinkedIn: Facebook:

2 Author Info DoD contractor with 28+ years of IT experience
B.S. Comp. Sci., M.S. Soft. Eng., & D.M. Info. Sys. Large gov’t projects in U.S., Far/Mid-East, & Europe Published six books & numerous journal articles Adjunct at George Washington, UMUC, & Argosy Agile Program Management & Lean Development Specializes in metrics, models, & cost engineering Six Sigma, CMMI, ISO 9001, DoDAF, & DoD 5000 Cloud Computing, SOA, Web Services, FOSS, etc. 2

3  Introduction Table of Contents Types of Virtual Teams
Key Practices & Techniques Key Tools & Technologies Key Case Studies Conclusions & Summary

4 What is Lean & Agile Proj. Mgt.?
Lean-Agile (lēn-ăj'əl): Quick, lightweight, effective, adaptable; Project mgt. model free of excess waste Customer satisfaction through frequent interaction to establish understanding, trust, and lasting relationships Team performance through empowerment, coaching, and mentoring that fosters collaborative problem solving High product quality through disciplined processes that focus on rapid iterative delivery of operational products Business value through adaptation to changing customer needs by flexible organizations, processes, and products Project management model based on relationships, value, systems thinking, flow, pull, and perfection F Leach, L. P. (2005). Lean project management: Eight principles for success. Boise, ID: Advanced Projects. Leach, L. P., & Leach, S. P. (2010). Lean project leadership: Synthesizing the tools of professional project management. Boise, ID: Advanced Projects. Mascitelli, R. (2002). Building a project driven enterprise: How to slash waste and boost profits through lean project management. Northridge, CA: Technology Perspectives.

5 Lean & Agile Proj. Mgt. Model
Created by Jim Highsmith at Cutter in 2003 Radical project mgt., Scrum, & XP hybrid model Includes strategic, program, and project mgt. tools Innovation Lifecycle Envision Speculate Explore Launch Close Product Vision Gather Requirements Iteration Planning Final Review Close Open Items Product Architecture Product Backlog Technical Practices Final Acceptance Support Material Project Objectives Release Planning Team Development Final QA Final Retrospective Project Community Risk Planning Team Decisions Final Documentation Final Reports Delivery Approach Cost Estimation Collaboration Final Deployment Project Celebration Iterative Delivery Technical Planning Development, Test, and Evaluation Operational Testing Adapt Story Analysis Development Pairing Integration Testing Focus Groups Task Development Unit Test Development System Testing Technical Reviews Task Estimation Simple Designs Operational Testing Team Evaluations Task Splitting Coding and Refactoring Usability Testing Project Reporting Task Planning Unit and Component Testing Acceptance Testing Adaptive Action Continuous Story Deployment Standups, Architecture, Design, Build, Integration, Documentation, Change, Migration, and Integration Highsmith, J. A. (2010). Agile project management: Creating innovative products. Boston, MA: Pearson Education.

6 How Do Lean & Agile Intersect?
Agile is naturally lean and based on small batches Agile directly supports six principles of lean thinking Agile may be converted to a continuous flow system Agile Values Lean Pillars Lean Principles Lean & Agile Practices Flow Principles Customer relationships, satisfaction, trust, and loyalty Empowered Teams Relationships Team authority, empowerment, and resources Decentralization Team identification, cohesion, and communication Respect for People Product vision, mission, needs, and capabilities Customer Value Product scope, constraints, and business value Economic View Product objectives, specifications, and performance Customer Collaboration As is policies, processes, procedures, and instructions WIP Constraints & Kanban Value Stream To be business processes, flowcharts, and swim lanes Initial workflow analysis, metrication, and optimization Batch size, work in process, and artifact size constraints Control Cadence & Small Batches Iterative Delivery Continuous Flow Cadence, queue size, buffers, slack, and bottlenecks Workflow, test, integration, and deployment automation Continuous Improvement Roadmaps, releases, iterations, and product priorities Customer Pull Epics, themes, feature sets, features, and user stories Fast Feedback Product demonstrations, feedback, and new backlogs Responding to Change Refactor, test driven design, and continuous integration Manage Queues/ Exploit Variability Perfection Standups, retrospectives, and process improvements Organization, project, and process adaptability/flexibility Highsmith, J. A. (2002). Agile software development ecosystems. Boston, MA: Addison-Wesley. Larman, C., & Vodde, B. (2008). Scaling lean and agile development: Thinking and organizational tools for large-scale scrum. Boston, MA: Addison-Wesley. Womack, J. P., & Jones, D. T. (1996). Lean thinking: Banish waste and create wealth in your corporation. New York, NY: Free Press. Reinertsen, D. G. (2009). The principles of product development flow: Second generation lean product development. New York, NY: Celeritas. 6

7 F What are Virtual Teams?
Virtual teams are often non-collocated project teams Often communicate using asynchronous technology Geographically and sometimes nationally dispersed Zigurs 2003 Curseu 2008 Schlenkrich 2009 Ahuja 2010 Traditional vs Virtual ü ü ü ü Collocated vs distributed ü ü ü ü F2F vs electronic collaboration F ü ü Different vs similar goals ü ü Similar vs different hours ü ü Similar vs diverse culture ü Same vs different organization ü Specialized vs cross functional ü ü Single vs multiple teams ü ü Static vs shifting teams ü Office bldg vs telecommuting Zigurs, I. (2003). Leadership in virtual teams: Oxymoron or opportunity? Organizational Dynamics, 31(4), Curseu, P. L., Schalk, R., & Wessel, I. (2008). How to virtual teams process information? Journal of Managerial Psychology, 23(6), Schlenkrich, L., & Upfold, C. (2009). A guideline for virtual team managers. Electronic Journal of Information Systems Evaluation, 12(1), Ahuja, J. (2010). A study of virtuality impact on team performance. IUP Journal of Management Research, 9(5),

8 Why Use Virtual Teams? Oft cited benefit of virtual teams is reduced expenses Access to global talent pool is probably best reason Other advantages such as cycle time are oft cited Bergiel 2008 Labrosse 2008 Shachaf 2008 Kuruppuara- chchi 2009 Siebdrat 2009 Advantage of Virtual Teams ü ü ü ü Reduced operating expenses ü ü ü ü ü Utilize global talent pool ü ü Staffing flexibility ü ü Improved productivity ü ü ü ü Workforce diversity ü ü ü ü Reduced travel expenses ü ü ü Faster cycle time ü Better work life balance ü Reduced environmental footprint ü ü ü ü Improved business advantage Bergiel, B. J., Bergiel, E. B., & Balsmeier, P. W. (2008). Nature of virtual teams: A summary of their advantages and disadvantages. Management Research News, 31(2), LaBrosse, M. (2008). Managing virtual teams. Employment Relations Today, 35(2), Shachaf, P. (2008). Cultural diversity and information and communication technology impacts on global virtual teams. Information & Management, 45(2), Kuruppuarachchi, P. R. (2009). Virtual team concepts in projects: A case study. Project Management Journal, 40(2), Siebdrat, F., Hoegl, M., & Ernst, H. (2009). How to manage virtual teams. MIT Sloan Management Review, 50(4),

9 What are the Pitfalls? Culture and language difference most oft cited pitfalls Time zones and communications are frequently cited Lack of visioning, context, and requirements are key Disadvantage of Virtual Teams A B C D E F G H I J ü ü ü ü ü ü ü Cultural differences ü ü ü ü ü ü Language differences ü ü ü ü ü Time zone ü ü ü ü Coordination breakdown ü ü ü ü Lack of visioning ü ü ü ü Technology issues ü ü ü Loss of communication richness ü ü ü Loss of team cohesion ü ü ü Lack of trust ü ü ü Lack of F2F communications ü ü ü Ambiguous requirements Alves, C. H., et al. (2008). A qualitative risk model for offshoring IT applications. IEEE SIEDS Conference, Charlottsville, Virginia, USA, Chatfield, A. T., & Wanninayaka, P. (2008). IT offshoring risks and governance capabilities. 41st HICSS Conference, Waikaloa, Hawaii, USA, Yalaho, A., & Nahar, N. (2008). Risk management in offshore outsourcing of software projects. PICMET Conference, Cape Town, South Africa,

10 What is the Paradox? Collocation & F2F interaction are a means to success Virtual teams communicate less undermining success Low productivity, quality, customer satisfaction results Customer Satisfaction Quality Fast Feedback Fast Cycle Time Productivity Virtual Team “Performance” Synergy Trust Identity Cohesion Interaction Compatible Team Collocated Team F2F Meeting Video Conference Audio Conference Instant Messaging Electronic Mail Blog Interaction Wiki Interaction Document Review “Loss” of Virtual Team “Communication Quality” Rico, D. F. (2010). The paradox of agile project management and virtual teams. Gantthead. Carmel, E. (1999). Global software teams: Collaborating across borders and time zones. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

11  Types of Virtual Teams
Table of Contents Introduction  Types of Virtual Teams Key Practices & Techniques Key Tools & Technologies Key Case Studies Conclusions & Summary

12 Basic Varieties of Teams
Lipnack created a model for virtual teams in 1997 Distribution & organization are its major dimensions Distributed, cross organizational teams most complex Distributed Cross Organization Distributed Different Spacetime Collocated Cross Organization Collocated Same Same Different Organization Lipnack, J., & Stamps, J. (1997). Virtual teams: Reaching across space, time, and organizations with technology. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.

13 Varieties of Virtuality
Lipnack extended her model for virtual teams in 2000 Included notion of external joint ventures & alliances External, global alliances are most complex types Global Sites Global Cross Organization Global Alliance Global Distributed Sites Local Cross Organization Local Alliance Spacetime Local Traditional Work Unit Collocated Cross Organization Joint Venture Same Place Same Organization Cross Internal Cross External Organization Lipnack, J., & Stamps, J. (2000). Virtual teams: People working across boundaries with technology. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.

14 More Varieties of Virtuality
Fisher developed a three dimensional model in 2001 Includes the dimensions of time, place, and culture Type 2 multi cultural projects are most ambitious Time Type 5 Type 6 Shift Workers Mono Cultural Global Project Different Time Different Time Same Place Different Place Same Culture Same Culture Type 1 Type 2 Multi Cultural Shift Workers Multi Cultural Global Project Type 7 Different Time Different Time Intra Same Place Different Place Regional Different Culture Different Culture Same Time Different Place Same Culture Place Type 3 Type 4 Multi Cultural Team Same Longitude Same Time Same Time Same Place Different Place Different Culture Different Culture Culture Fisher, K., & Fisher, M. D. (2001). The distance manager: A hands on guide to managing off site employees and virtual teams. New York, NY: McGraw Hill. 14

15 Outsourcing vs. Offshoring
Schaaf compared outsourcing vs. onshoring in 2004 His model disambiguates outsourcing vs. onshoring Combining outsourcing & offshoring is the riskiest Offshore Subsidiaries Offshore Outsourcing International Offshoring Internal Service Provision Onshore Outsourcing Domestic Internal External Outsourcing Schaaf, J. (2004). Offshoring: Globalisation wave reaches services sector. Frankfurt, Germany: Deutsche Bank Research.

16 Rightshoring vs. Offshoring
Hendel introduced the concept of rightshoring in 2004 There are alternatives to just onshoring vs. offshoring A popular notion is to nearshore to similar timezones Nearshore Offshore Retain Project HQ Same Timezone Retain Project HQ Differing Timezone International Offshoring Onshore Onshore Retain Project HQ Same Timezone Retain Project HQ Differing Timezone Domestic Same Timezone Differing Timezone Rightshoring Hendel, A., Messner, W., & Thun, F. (2004). Rightshore: Successfully industrialize SAP projects offshore. Berlin, Germany: Springer.

17 Team Dispersion Siebdrat simplified types of virtual teams in 2009
Time, space, and cultural distance introduces risks Increased virtuality increases risk if not managed well High Effectiveness Performance Efficiency Low Same Floor Same Building Same Site Same City Same Country Same Continent Different Continent Dispersion Siebdrat, F., Hoegl, M., & Ernst, H. (2009). How to manage virtual teams. MIT Sloan Management Review, 50(4),

18 Agile Distributed Teams
Woodard created basic model of agile teams in 2010 It compares asynchronous activities vs. distribution Synchronous activities also needed for success High Levels of Distribution Low Collocated Part Time Distributed With Overlapping Hours Distributed Without Overlapping Hours Collocated Amount of Asynchronous Activity Woodward, E., Surdek, S., & Ganis, M. (2010). A practical guide to distributed scrum. Indianapolis, IN: IBM Press.

19  Key Practices & Techniques
Table of Contents Introduction Types of Virtual Teams  Key Practices & Techniques Key Tools & Technologies Key Case Studies Conclusions & Summary

20 Standard Practices Standard practices is an oft cited aid to virtual teams Agile methodologies are not known in every country Training should be provided and standards created VIDEO Video used to record and playback communications CODING Coding conventions are established WIRE FRAMES Wire frames are used for visual support USER STORIES Customer needs are captured in user stories TEMPLATES Templates are established for project communications PROCESSES Entire team follows the same agile process TRAINING Entire team is trained on agile methods Young, C., & Terashima, H. (2008). How did we adapt agile processes to our distributed development? Agile Conference, Toronto, Canada,

21 Virtual Infrastructure
Infrastructure needs are most often overlooked Many countries do not have adequate computers Internet service is also a luxury in across the globe SECURITY Information security is established to protect project information SUPPORT 24x7 infrastructure support is available INTERNET Broadband Internet is leased and utilized SOFTWARE Synchronous and asynchronous tools are selected SERVERS Dedicated servers are established for project information LAPTOPS Entire team is provided with laptops for office and home use MOBILE Entire team is provided with cell phones, smart phones, tablets, etc. Vax, M., & Michaud, S. (2008). Distributed agile: Growing a practice together. Agile Conference, Toronto, Canada,

22 Virtual Tools Many projects do not standardize development tools
Complete development tools are easy to assemble Development environments should be integrated MULTIMEDIA Development tools with collaborative capabilities are utilized CONTENT Wikis and other repositories are utilized METRICS Code metrics and defect tracking tools are used TESTING Unit, system, and acceptance testing tools are used BUILD Build tools are used for continuous integration and deployment VERSIONING Configuration management tools are used to manage source code WORKFLOW Release and iteration workflow tools are used Cannizzo, F., Marcionetti, G., & Moser, P. (2008). Evolution of the tools and practices of a large distributed agile team. Agile Conference, Toronto, Canada,

23 Virtual Meetings Frequent communication is a key to project success
Communication is better than documentation alone A critical key is to encourage frequent interactions SPLINTER Virtual splinter group meetings are held, i.e., design, brainstorming, etc. RETROSPECTIVE Virtual iteration retrospectives are held DEMONSTRATION Entire team participates in virtual demonstrations DEVELOPMENT Virtual development meetings held, i.e., pair programming STANDUP Entire team participates in virtual daily standup meetings ITERATION Entire team participates in virtual iteration planning meetings RELEASE Entire team participates in virtual release planning sessions Summers, S. (2008). Insights into an agile adventure with offshore partners. Agile Conference, Toronto, Canada,

24 Light Coordination The work of two or more teams requires facilitation
Local/remote team leaders must communicate often All team leaders can then pass on critical information FEEDBACK Customer feedback to developers is provided very quickly REPORTING Manual and automated status reporting FACILITATION Proactive management of intercultural dissonance TECHNICAL Coordination between local and remote technical leaders GOVERNANCE Lightweight governance teams with local and remote members LEADERSHIP Regular communications between local and remote process leaders CUSTOMER Regular communications between customers and remote teams Drummond, B. S., & Unson, J. F. (2008). Yahoo distributed agile: Notes from the world over. Agile Conference, Toronto, Canada,

25 Periodic Rotations Periodic F2F interaction is a CSF for virtual teams
Teams should meet at critical junctures, i.e., kickoff Rotating customers and leaders helps establish trust ENDPOINTS Teams collocate at critical junctures, i.e., kickoff, middle, closeout, etc. DEVELOPMENT Teams periodically collocate for iterations PLANNING Teams collocate for release and iteration planning PERSONNEL Individuals rotate to maintain healthy relationships LEADERS Project leaders keep local and remote teams in-synch AMBASSADORS Ambassadors are exchanged to minimize intercultural dissonance CUSTOMERS Customer apprises remote teams of product vision, mission, goals, objectives, etc. Robarts, J. M. (2008). Practical considerations for distributed agile projects. Agile Conference, Toronto, Canada,

26 Regional Localization
Minimizing interfaces between timezones is oft cited Products should be structured to localize activities It’s easier to communicate with nearshore teams DEVELOPMENT Subsystem interfaces are devised to localize development activities SOCIALIZATION Remote teams engage in social activities EMPOWERMENT Empower remote teams to make technical decisions MEETINGS Hold synchronous meetings at the local level LEADERS Empower local personnel to serve as process facilitators CUSTOMERS Empower local personnel to serve as customer proxies TIMEZONES Minimize organizational interfaces and organize teams by timezones Ramesh, B., Cao, L., Mohan, K., & Xu, P. (2006). Can distributed software development be agile? Communications of the ACM, 41(10),

27  Key Tools & Technologies
Table of Contents Introduction Types of Virtual Teams Key Practices & Techniques  Key Tools & Technologies Key Case Studies Conclusions & Summary

28   VersionOne One of the first APM tools created in 2003
Has about 36% of the marketshare for APM tools Free for small teams, but increases sharply thereafter Product Roadmapping Iteration Closeout Reviews Roadmap Authoring Sprint Reviews Customization Sprint Retrospectives Collaboration Issue and Action Item Tracking Publishing Backlog reconciliation Product Planning Tracking Backlog Planning and Management Sprint and Member Tracking Epics, Goals, Themes, Feature Groups Storyboard Wall Customer Requests and Idea Management Task Board and Test Board Product Roadmapping Features My Work and My Dashboard Release Planning Reporting and Analytics Release Planning Program Dashboard Release Forecasting Project Dashboard Cross Project Planning and Scheduling Iteration Dashboard Regression Test Planning Burnup/Burndown Reports Sprint Planning Other Features High Level Sprint Planning Agile Closeout Reviews Detailed Sprint Planning Test Management Capacity Planning Collaboration Issue Management Features Open Source Integration

29   Rally One of the first web-based APM tools created in 2004
Has about 20-30% of the marketshare for APM tools Also free for small teams and gets more expensive Agile Project Management Communication and Collaboration High Level Roadmap Decomposition Customizable Role Dashboards Epic, Theme, and Feature Tracking Rich Text, , and RSS Support User Story Planning and Tracking Social Media Style Interfaces User Story Breakdown Management Comments, Discussions, and IM Multi - Team Management Development Management Organization Chart Mirroring Requirements Management Multi Level Project Hierarchies Test Management Common Progress and Status Views Defect Management Program, Feature, and Resource Rollup Build and Source Code Traceability Release Planning Reporting Step by Step Release Planning Flexible Queries and Filters Team Velocity Determination Customer Tabular Graphical Reports Release and Iteration Schedules Burnup/Burndown Reporting, etc. User Story Allocation to Iterations User Generated Mashup Support Iteration Planning Product Management Iteration Goal and Theme Support Customer Feedback Management Team Capacity Determination Product Field Support Backlog Item Prioritization Demand Management Task Creation, Estimation, and Tracking CRM Integration and Support

30   ScrumWorks Scrum project management tool created circa 2004
Similar size of user base to VersionOne and Rally Leadership in agile metrics and business value Product Management Real Time Custom Dashboards Project Milestone Management Velocity Charts Epics for Project Scope Goals Milestone Charts Categorization using Themes Cycle Time Charts Business Weighting and ROI Cross Product Status Reporting Program Management Data Accessibility Coordination of Multiple Projects Full Excel Import/Export Manage and Track Overlapping Goals Print to User Story Cards Shared Component/System Modeling Web Services API High Level Feature Management Backups and Notifications Iteration Management User Management Drag and Drop Iteration Planning Full Access Control Team Task Board Role Based Access Permissions Sprint Task Tracking Cross Site Role Templates Impediment Tracking Security Management Reporting and Analytics Integration Release Date Forecasting Commercial Environment Integration Basic Burnup/Burndown Reporting Open Source Environment Integration Canned and Custom Report Generation Issue and Defect Tracking Integration Analysis of Planned vs. Actuals Support for Tool Plugins

31   Extreme Planner XP project management tool created around 2004
Noted commercial tool for managing XP projects No free version, although it is moderately priced Multiple Project Support Test Management Multiple Project Definition Test Criteria Generation Multiple Project Status Tracking Test Case Generation and Capture Multiple Project Report Generation Test Case Initiation Multiple Project Task Tracking Test Status Reporting User Story Generation Integrated Issue Tracking Cross Project Story Themes Track Customer Support Requests Create a Story from an Issue Track Bug Reports Theme and Story Template Reuse Track Ad Hoc Suggestions Inter Project Story Management Transition Issues to User Stories Release Planning Report Generation Capture User Stories Generated Velocity and Task Tracking Estimate and Prioritize User Stories Iteration Burnup/Burndown Charts View Schedule Stories for Releases Cumulative Workflow Diagrams View Estimated Effort for Releases User Defined Reports Drag and Drop Iteration Planning Notification and Alerts Iteration Generation and Management Notifications Drag and Drop User Story Management Notification Capture and Management Iteration Effort Estimation Notification Viewing and Filtering Iteration Status Reporting User Selectable Notifications

32   Mingle APM tool created by ThoughtWorks in late 2007
Extensible templates for multiple agile methods Growing user base that is free for small teams Program Management Test Management Support for Multiple Projects Visual Defect Workflows Multi Project Status Tracking User Story and Defect Traceability Multi Project Report Generation RSS and Test Alerting Resource Allocation and Management Wiki Support for Screenshots and Reports Project Management Project Collaboration Multi Agile Method Support Virtual Drag and Drop Card Walls Customizable Dashboards Integrated Wiki Workflow Generators RSS Feeds and Alerts User Management and Access Control Murmurs , Queues , and Comments Release and Iteration Planning Enterprise Support Hierarchical Card Trees Application Life Cycle Management Prioritized Card Ranking Integration with IDEs User Story Searching and Recall Integration with Versioning Tools Global User Story Updating Integration with Build/Deployment Tools Tracking and Reporting External Interfaces Customizable Templates I/O from Common Data Formats Customizable Tabs, Favorites, and Views Integration with External Databases Advanced Filtering, Properties, and Tags Integration with Workflow Tools Burndown, Velocity, and Ad Hoc Reports Integration with External Software

33   Target Process APM tool originally created for XP circa 2004
Now includes support Scrum, Lean, Kanban, etc. Also free for small teams and then price rises sharply Agile Planning and Tracking Quality Assurance Backlog Management and Prioritization Test Plan and Test Case Generation Release and Iteration Planning Automated Test Initiation Task Boards and Personal To Do Lists User Story/Test Case Traceability Impediments and Blockage Management Defect Tracking and Management Lean Development Reports and Dashboards Value Stream Mapping Customizable Dashboards Kanban Boards Release and Iteration Forecasting Cumulative Workflow Diagrams Release and Iteration Burndown Charts Work in Process Limits Task, User Story, and Iteration Progress Customization Collaboration Customizable Development Process Customizable Notifications Customizable User Roles and Terminology Content Sharing and Management Customizable Navigation and Lists Support for Multiple Content Types Customizable Fields and Other Attributes Integration with Synchronous Tools Integration Product Support Web Services API Customer Help Desk Portal Visual Studio and Eclipse IDE Integration Ideas and Issues Tracking Subversion, Bugzilla, JUnit, and Selenium Bug Reports Traceable to User Stories Single Sign On Support Full Customer Integration

34 Other APM Tools There are literally dozens, if not 100s of APM tools
There are dozens of free open source software tools Annual tool & price surveys are frequently conducted VersionOne. (2010). 5th annual state of agile survey. Atlanta, GA: Author. Allen, W. (2008). Agile PM tools (hosted). Retrieved May 11, 2011 from

35  Key Case Studies Table of Contents Introduction
Types of Virtual Teams Key Practices & Techniques Key Tools & Technologies  Key Case Studies Conclusions & Summary

36 British Telecom Middleware products for phone call processing
Goal was to obtain fast feedback with virtual teams Satisfied using intensive automation for fast feedback Maximum Status Visibility Immediate Feedback Virtual Release Planning Virtual Static Analysis Reporting Virtual Iteration Tracking Virtual Build and Test Reporting Virtual Build and Test Status Virtual Iteration Status Reporting Feedback Telecommunications XP and Scrum Five Sites UK, US, India 50 People Intensive Automation Ruthless Automation Effective Communication Virtual Static Analysis Virtual Video Conferences Virtual Operational Builds Virtual Content Wikis Virtual Software Testing Periodic F2F and Collocation Cannizzo, F., Marcionetti, G., & Moser, P. (2008). Evolution of the tools and practices of a large distributed agile team. Agile Conference, Toronto, Canada,

37 Yahoo! Development of commercial Internet services
Goal was to adapt agile methods for virtual teams Satisfied by minimizing use of synchronous meetings Localized Meetings Localized Proxies Localized Scrum Meetings Localized Product Owners Periodic Leadership Meetings Localized Scrum Masters Reporting Good and Bad News Periodic Meetings to Synchronize Adaptation Internet Services Scrum Periodic F2F Meetings Six Sites Near Realtime Info Sharing US, India, Norway, UK Quarterly F2F Release Planning 90 People Localized Information Radiators Periodic F2F Sprint Planning Virtual Wiki Content Repositories Periodic F2F Sprint Collocation Reduce Dependencies Shared Electronic Image Content Virtual Sprint Planning Task Localization Virtual Sprint Planning Initiation Reduce Cross Site Dependency Localized Sprint Planning Closure Localized Team Independence Virtual Sprint Planning Followups Periodic Virtual Scrum of Scrums Drummond, B. S., & Unson, J. F. (2008). Yahoo distributed agile: Notes from the world over. Agile Conference, Toronto, Canada,

38 ThoughtWorks Development of web applications for global clients
Goal was to maintain high levels of communications Satisfied with F2F visits and detailed status reporting Visits & Rotations Common Understanding Face to Face Kickoff Meetings Agree on Development Practices Customer and Leadership Visits Setup Wiki Process Repositories Developer and Tester Rotations Share Templates and Artifacts Communication Web Applications Scrum Sharing Progress Three Sites Regional Accommodations US , India , HK , and China Virtual Timezone Standups 115 People Plan for Local Non Work Days Localized Standup Meetings Exchange Data Before Absences Virtual Daily Leadership Meetings Status Reporting Use Overlapping Work Schedules Communications Product Visioning Infrastructure Needs Periodic Reporting Between Sites Periodic Visioning Meetings Supply Laptops to All Personnel Following Up Meetings with Notes Localized Prototypes and Models Supply Mobile Computing Devices Up To Date Wiki Content Sharing Recorded Expert Videos Supply Internet Services Robarts, J. M. (2008). Practical considerations for distributed agile projects. Agile Conference, Toronto, Canada,

39 Wipro Technologies Development of software engineering products
Goal was to be productive across different cultures Satisfied by use of intensive coaching and mentoring Project Setup Local & Remote Mentoring Setup Release Planning Tools Use Mentors as Customers Setup Modeling Tools Assign Automation Advisors Setup Code and Defect Tools Use Release Planning Tools Setup Automated Test Tools Daily Standups with Mentoring Ramping Up Setup Wiki Content Repository Post Daily Standups Data in Wiki Software tools XP Two Sites India, China 24 People Coaching & Mentoring Project Kickoff Face to Face Kickoff Meeting Communicate Using Diagrams Use Wikis for Content Sharing Localize Work if Needed Periodically Merge Code Shrinivasavadhani, J., & Panicker, V. (2008). Remote mentoring a distributed agile team. Agile Conference, Toronto, Canada,

40 CampusSoft Development of software systems for academia
Goal was to improve quality results of global teams Achieved by using agile methods and onsite visioning Product Visioning Working Practices Onsite Product Visioning Standardized Development Tools Virtual Product Owner Meetings Virtual Shared Content Wikis Open Communications Virtual Defect Tracking Tools Utilize Stories for Discussion Virtual Source Code Repositories Quality Start With Easy User Stories Virtual Build and Integration Tools Educational Software Scrum Three Sites UK, Romania, India 44 People Agile & Visioning Sprint Planning Ongoing Meetings Testing and Integration Virtual Release Planning Periodic Face to Face Sprints Joint Early Test Planning Local Release Planning Experts Virtual Brainstorming Meetings Automated Testing Virtual Planning Poker Sessions Virtual Daily Standup Meetings Localized Testing and Debugging Virtual Sharing During Planning Virtual Sprint Review Meetings Automated Deployments Wikis for Release Planning Data Virtual Retrospective Meetings Virtual Daily Operational Builds Summers, S. (2008). Insights into an agile adventure with offshore partners. Agile Conference, Toronto, Canada,

41 Elastic Path/Luxoft Development of electronic commerce websites
Goal was to maintain context with distributed team Satisfied with coordination in overlapping time zones Nearshore Resources Coordination Use Nearby Coordinators Virtual Scrum of Scrums Use Resources Within Timezone Scrummasters as Product Owners Use Face to Face Interactions Unrestricted Communications Interaction within Two Timezones Context Create Architecture Liaison E-Commerce Scrum Five Sites Canada, Russia 14 People Partial Nearshoring Processes and Tools Communication Plans Shared Workspaces Standard Agile Practices Provide Mobile Computing Tools Establish Infrastructure Servers Virtual Release Planning Tools Periodic Virtual Standup Meetings Virtual Content Workspaces Virtual Source Code Repository Use Asynchronous Retrospectives Establish Security Measures Virtual Build and Testing Tools Use Multi Media Communications 24x7 Infrastructure Support Vax, M., & Michaud, S. (2008). Distributed agile: Growing a practice together. Agile Conference, Toronto, Canada,

42 Scandinavia Development of internal & external web applications
Goal was to determine if agile practices are scalable Satisfied with routine face-to-face & virtual meetings Scrum Meetings Communication Virtual Audio Standup Meetings Periodic Leadership Rotations Weekly Video Standup Meetings Periodic Personnel Rotations Multimedia Splinter Meetings Periodic Face to Face Sprints Virtual Weekly Scrum of Scrums Scalability Multimedia Communication Backoffice Systems Scrum Sprints Six Sites Development Environment Fin, Latvia, DE, NO, Malay. Synchronized Sprints 67 People Virtual Sprint Planning/Tracking One to Many Sprints Virtual Backlog Management Clear Sprint Deadlines and Goals F2F & Virtual Meetings Virtual Wiki Content Servers Periodic Release Sprints Shared Development Tools Sprint Planning Reviews & Retrospectives Virtual Sprint Planning Virtual Sprint Review Meetings Virtual Sprint Application Sharing Virtual Sprint Review Sharing Periodic F2F Sprint Planning Periodic F2F Sprint Reviews Virtual Audio Planning Followups Virtual Sprint Retrospectives Paasivaara, M., Durasiewicz, S., & Lassenius, C. (2009). Using scrum in distributed agile development. Global Software Engineering Conference, Limerick, Ireland,

43  Conclusions & Summary
Table of Contents Introduction Types of Virtual Teams Key Practices & Techniques Key Tools & Technologies Key Case Studies  Conclusions & Summary

44 Leadership Considerations
Agile management is delegated to the lowest level There remain key leadership roles & responsibilities Communication, coaching, & facilitation are key ones Customer Communication Facilitate selection of methods for obtaining and maintaining executive commitment, project resources, corporate communications, and customer interaction Product Visioning Facilitate selection of methods for communicating product purpose, goals, objectives, mission, vision, business value, scope, performance, budget, assumptions, constraints, etc. Distribution Strategy Facilitate selection of virtual team distribution strategy to satisfy project goals and objectives Team Development Facilitate selection of methods for training, coaching, mentoring, and other team building approaches Standards & Practices Facilitate selection of project management and technical practices, conventions, roles, responsibilities, and performance measures Telecom Infrastructure Facilitate selection of high bandwidth telecommunication products and services Development Tools Facilitate selection of agile project management tools and interactive development environment High Context Meetings Facilitate selection of high context agile project management and development meetings Facilitate selection of meetings and forums for regular communications between site coordinators Coordination Meetings Facilitate selection of methods for maximizing periodic face to face interactions and collaboration F2F Communications Facilities selection of methods for process improvement, problem resolution, conflict management, team recognition, product performance, and customer satisfaction Performance Management Maholtra, A., Majchrzak, A., & Rosen, B. (2007). Leading virtual teams. Academy of Management Perspectives, 21(1), Hunsaker, P. L., & Hunsaker, P. L. (2008). Virtual teams: A leadership guide. Team Performance Management, 14(1/2), Fisher, K., & Fisher, M. D. (2001). The distance manager: A hands on guide to managing off site employees and virtual teams. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

45 Lean & Agile Proj. Mgt. Metrics
Agile metrics include trust/communication principles Lean metrics align lean principles & agile practices Flow metrics embody advanced lean principles Agile Values Agile Metrics Lean Pillars Lean Metrics Flow Metrics Empowered Teams Relationships Team competence Customer relationships, satisfaction, trust, and loyalty Individuals & Interactions Decentralization Team motivation Team authority, empowerment, and resources Team cooperation Team identification, cohesion, and communication Team trust Team cohesion Customer Value Team communication Respect For People Product vision, mission, needs, and capabilities Economic view Customer Interaction Product scope, constraints, and business value Interaction frequency Product objectives, specifications, and performance Customer Collaboration Communication quality Value Stream Relationship strength Customer trust As is policies, processes, procedures, and instructions WIP constraints Customer loyalty To be business processes, flowcharts, and swim lanes Kanban Customer satisfaction Initial workflow analysis, metrication, and optimization Iterative Delivery Continuous Flow Iteration size Batch size, work in process, and artifact size constraints Control cadence Working Software Iteration number Cadence, queue size, buffers, slack, and bottlenecks Small batches Iteration frequency Workflow, test, integration, and deployment automation Continuous iterations Operational iterations Customer Pull Validated iterations Continuous Improvement Roadmaps, releases, iterations, and product priorities Fast feedback Adaptability & Flexibility Epics, themes, feature sets, features, and user stories Product demonstrations, feedback, and new backlogs Organization flexibility Responding to Change Management flexibility Perfection Individual flexibility Process flexibility Refactor, test driven design, and continuous integration Manage queues Design flexibility Standups, retrospectives, and process improvements Exploit variability Technology flexibility Organization, project, and process adaptability/flexibility Womack, J. P., & Jones, D. T. (1996). Lean thinking: Banish waste and create wealth in your corporation. New York, NY: Free Press. Reinertsen, D. G. (2009). The principles of product development flow: Second generation lean product development. New York, NY: Celeritas.

46 Offshore Outsourcing Metrics
Vashistha has complete guide to offshore outsourcing Strategic framework for evaluating offshore locations Offers metrics and data to support decision making Factors Subfactors India Phil China Canada Lat Am Ireland Czech Poland Hungary Russia Exogenous Geopolitical Environment Factors that define the characteristics of the country beyond influence of organization Government Support Educational System Infrastructure Cost Advantage Catalyst Language Factors that drive offshore service delivery in a country Culture Timezone Labor Pool Business Factors related to direct advantages, supplier skills, and business issues Competency Quality Attrition Vashistha, A., & Vashistha, A (2006). Offshore nation: Strategies for success in global outsourcing and offshoring. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

47 Costs and Benefits Unfacilitated virtual teams are less effective than F2F Offshoring saves about 25% due to lower labor costs Offshore savings vary based on leadership methods Variable F2F Virtual Variable % Cost Low Med High Team score 82% 78% Wage rate 46% $17.5m $2.2m $4.8m $8.7m Interactions 24.9 17.6 Comm system 20% $7.6m $1.0m $2.1m $3.8m Task effort 5.8 hrs 7.1 hrs Infrastructure 7% $2.7m $0.3m $0.7m $1.3m Trust 84% 72% Transition and governance 4% $1.5m $0.2m $0.4m $0.8m Cohesion 79% 66% Resource redeployment 1% $0.4m $0.0m $0.1m $0.2m Outcome sat 86% 78% Training and productivity 9% $3.4m $0.4m $0.9m $1.7m Process sat 86% 76% Business continuity 3% $1.1m $0.1m $0.3m $0.6m Emergent leader 60% 75% Advisory services 4% $1.5m $0.2m $0.4m $0.8m Free riders 2% 9% Travel costs 3% $1.1m $0.1m $0.3m $0.6m Deserters 0% 2% Currency fluctuation 3% $1.1m $0.1m $0.3m $0.6m 83% 74% $38.0m $4.8m $10.5m $19.0m Vashistha, A., & Vashistha, A (2006). Offshore nation: Strategies for success in global outsourcing and offshoring. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. De Pillis, E., & Furumo, K. (2007). Counting the cost of virtual teams: Studying the performance, satisfaction, and group dynamics of virtual and face to face teams. Communications of the ACM, 50(12), 47

48 Current Trends & Directions
Virtual teamwork is 21st century business model Opens the door to offshore/nearshore outsourcing Farshoring is normal but nearshoring is also popular F Gidwana, J. (2005). Research summary: Mapping offshore markets update. San Ramon, CA: NeoIT.

49 Key Points & Takeaways Virtual teams communicate less undermining success A key is not to eliminate them in favor of F2F teams A better answer is to support them with leadership Customer Satisfaction Process Improvement Quality Rotation Fast Feedback Coordination Fast Cycle Time Coaching Productivity Training Virtual Team “Performance” Virtual Team “Leadership” Development Tools Synergy Trust Infrastructure Standards & Practices Identity Cohesion Visioning Interaction Rightshoring Compatible Team Collocated Team F2F Meeting Video Conference Audio Conference Instant Messaging Electronic Mail Blog Interaction Wiki Interaction Document Review “Loss” of Virtual Team “Communication Quality” Rico, D. F. (2010). The paradox of agile project management and virtual teams. Gantthead. Garton, C., & Wegryn, K. (2006). Managing without walls: Maximize success with virtual, global, and cross cultural teams. Lewisville, TX: MC Press.

50 Books—Agile Virtual Teams
Virtual teams are the last frontier in agile methods Numerous books emerging on agile virtual teams Books by Woodward & Eckstein among the best Woodward, E., Surdek, S., & Ganis, M. (2010). A practical guide to distributed scrum. Indianapolis, IN: IBM Press. Eckstein, J. (2010). Agile software development with distributed teams: Staying agile in a global world. New York, NY: Dorset House. Upadrista, V. (2008). Managing offshore development projects: An agile approach. Oshawa, Canada: Multi-Media Publications. Ambler, S., & Aguanno, K. (2010). Adapting agile for use with distributed teams. Oshawa, Canada: Multi-Media Publications. Mite, D., Moe, N. B., & Ågerfalk, P. J. (2010). Agility across time and space: Implementing agile methods in global software projects. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag.


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