Presentation on theme: "Lean & Agile Project Management"— Presentation transcript:
1 Lean & Agile Project Management Dr. David F. Rico, PMP, CSMWebsite:LinkedIn:Facebook:
2 Author Info DoD contractor with 28+ years of IT experience B.S. Comp. Sci., M.S. Soft. Eng., & D.M. Info. Sys.Large gov’t projects in U.S., Far/Mid-East, & EuropePublished six books & numerous journal articlesAdjunct at George Washington, UMUC, & ArgosyAgile Program Management & Lean DevelopmentSpecializes in metrics, models, & cost engineeringSix Sigma, CMMI, ISO 9001, DoDAF, & DoD 5000Cloud Computing, SOA, Web Services, FOSS, etc.2
3 Introduction Table of Contents Types of Virtual Teams Key Practices & TechniquesKey Tools & TechnologiesKey Case StudiesConclusions & Summary
4 What is Lean & Agile Proj. Mgt.? Lean-Agile (lēn-ăj'əl): Quick, lightweight, effective, adaptable; Project mgt. model free of excess wasteCustomer satisfaction through frequent interaction to establish understanding, trust, and lasting relationshipsTeam performance through empowerment, coaching, and mentoring that fosters collaborative problem solvingHigh product quality through disciplined processes that focus on rapid iterative delivery of operational productsBusiness value through adaptation to changing customer needs by flexible organizations, processes, and productsProject management model based on relationships, value, systems thinking, flow, pull, and perfectionFLeach, L. P. (2005). Lean project management: Eight principles for success. Boise, ID: Advanced Projects.Leach, L. P., & Leach, S. P. (2010). Lean project leadership: Synthesizing the tools of professional project management. Boise, ID: Advanced Projects.Mascitelli, R. (2002). Building a project driven enterprise: How to slash waste and boost profits through lean project management. Northridge, CA: Technology Perspectives.
5 Lean & Agile Proj. Mgt. Model Created by Jim Highsmith at Cutter in 2003Radical project mgt., Scrum, & XP hybrid modelIncludes strategic, program, and project mgt. toolsInnovation LifecycleEnvisionSpeculateExploreLaunchCloseProduct VisionGather RequirementsIteration PlanningFinal ReviewClose Open ItemsProduct ArchitectureProduct BacklogTechnical PracticesFinal AcceptanceSupport MaterialProject ObjectivesRelease PlanningTeam DevelopmentFinal QAFinal RetrospectiveProject CommunityRisk PlanningTeam DecisionsFinal DocumentationFinal ReportsDelivery ApproachCost EstimationCollaborationFinal DeploymentProject CelebrationIterative DeliveryTechnical PlanningDevelopment, Test, and EvaluationOperational TestingAdaptStory AnalysisDevelopment PairingIntegration TestingFocus GroupsTask DevelopmentUnit Test DevelopmentSystem TestingTechnical ReviewsTask EstimationSimple DesignsOperational TestingTeam EvaluationsTask SplittingCoding and RefactoringUsability TestingProject ReportingTask PlanningUnit and Component TestingAcceptance TestingAdaptive ActionContinuousStory DeploymentStandups, Architecture, Design, Build, Integration, Documentation, Change, Migration, and IntegrationHighsmith, J. A. (2010). Agile project management: Creating innovative products. Boston, MA: Pearson Education.
6 How Do Lean & Agile Intersect? Agile is naturally lean and based on small batchesAgile directly supports six principles of lean thinkingAgile may be converted to a continuous flow systemAgile ValuesLean PillarsLean PrinciplesLean & Agile PracticesFlow PrinciplesCustomer relationships, satisfaction, trust, and loyaltyEmpoweredTeamsRelationshipsTeam authority, empowerment, and resourcesDecentralizationTeam identification, cohesion, and communicationRespectfor PeopleProduct vision, mission, needs, and capabilitiesCustomer ValueProduct scope, constraints, and business valueEconomic ViewProduct objectives, specifications, and performanceCustomerCollaborationAs is policies, processes, procedures, and instructionsWIP Constraints& KanbanValue StreamTo be business processes, flowcharts, and swim lanesInitial workflow analysis, metrication, and optimizationBatch size, work in process, and artifact size constraintsControl Cadence& Small BatchesIterativeDeliveryContinuous FlowCadence, queue size, buffers, slack, and bottlenecksWorkflow, test, integration, and deployment automationContinuousImprovementRoadmaps, releases, iterations, and product prioritiesCustomer PullEpics, themes, feature sets, features, and user storiesFast FeedbackProduct demonstrations, feedback, and new backlogsRespondingto ChangeRefactor, test driven design, and continuous integrationManage Queues/Exploit VariabilityPerfectionStandups, retrospectives, and process improvementsOrganization, project, and process adaptability/flexibilityHighsmith, J. A. (2002). Agile software development ecosystems. Boston, MA: Addison-Wesley.Larman, C., & Vodde, B. (2008). Scaling lean and agile development: Thinking and organizational tools for large-scale scrum. Boston, MA: Addison-Wesley.Womack, J. P., & Jones, D. T. (1996). Lean thinking: Banish waste and create wealth in your corporation. New York, NY: Free Press.Reinertsen, D. G. (2009). The principles of product development flow: Second generation lean product development. New York, NY: Celeritas.6
7 F What are Virtual Teams? Virtual teams are often non-collocated project teamsOften communicate using asynchronous technologyGeographically and sometimes nationally dispersedZigurs2003Curseu2008Schlenkrich2009Ahuja2010Traditional vs VirtualüüüüCollocated vs distributedüüüüF2F vs electronic collaborationFüüDifferent vs similar goalsüüSimilar vs different hoursüüSimilar vs diverse cultureüSame vs different organizationüSpecialized vs cross functionalüüSingle vs multiple teamsüüStatic vs shifting teamsüOffice bldg vs telecommutingZigurs, I. (2003). Leadership in virtual teams: Oxymoron or opportunity? Organizational Dynamics, 31(4),Curseu, P. L., Schalk, R., & Wessel, I. (2008). How to virtual teams process information? Journal of Managerial Psychology, 23(6),Schlenkrich, L., & Upfold, C. (2009). A guideline for virtual team managers. Electronic Journal of Information Systems Evaluation, 12(1),Ahuja, J. (2010). A study of virtuality impact on team performance. IUP Journal of Management Research, 9(5),
8 Why Use Virtual Teams?Oft cited benefit of virtual teams is reduced expensesAccess to global talent pool is probably best reasonOther advantages such as cycle time are oft citedBergiel2008Labrosse2008Shachaf2008Kuruppuara-chchi 2009Siebdrat2009Advantage of Virtual TeamsüüüüReduced operating expensesüüüüüUtilize global talent poolüüStaffing flexibilityüüImproved productivityüüüüWorkforce diversityüüüüReduced travel expensesüüüFaster cycle timeüBetter work life balanceüReduced environmental footprintüüüüImproved business advantageBergiel, B. J., Bergiel, E. B., & Balsmeier, P. W. (2008). Nature of virtual teams: A summary of their advantages and disadvantages. Management Research News, 31(2),LaBrosse, M. (2008). Managing virtual teams. Employment Relations Today, 35(2),Shachaf, P. (2008). Cultural diversity and information and communication technology impacts on global virtual teams. Information & Management, 45(2),Kuruppuarachchi, P. R. (2009). Virtual team concepts in projects: A case study. Project Management Journal, 40(2),Siebdrat, F., Hoegl, M., & Ernst, H. (2009). How to manage virtual teams. MIT Sloan Management Review, 50(4),
9 What are the Pitfalls?Culture and language difference most oft cited pitfallsTime zones and communications are frequently citedLack of visioning, context, and requirements are keyDisadvantage of Virtual TeamsABCDEFGHIJüüüüüüüCultural differencesüüüüüüLanguage differencesüüüüüTime zoneüüüüCoordination breakdownüüüüLack of visioningüüüüTechnology issuesüüüLoss of communication richnessüüüLoss of team cohesionüüüLack of trustüüüLack of F2F communicationsüüüAmbiguous requirementsAlves, C. H., et al. (2008). A qualitative risk model for offshoring IT applications. IEEE SIEDS Conference, Charlottsville, Virginia, USA,Chatfield, A. T., & Wanninayaka, P. (2008). IT offshoring risks and governance capabilities. 41st HICSS Conference, Waikaloa, Hawaii, USA,Yalaho, A., & Nahar, N. (2008). Risk management in offshore outsourcing of software projects. PICMET Conference, Cape Town, South Africa,
10 What is the Paradox?Collocation & F2F interaction are a means to successVirtual teams communicate less undermining successLow productivity, quality, customer satisfaction resultsCustomerSatisfactionQualityFastFeedbackFastCycle TimeProductivityVirtual Team “Performance”SynergyTrustIdentityCohesionInteractionCompatibleTeamCollocatedTeamF2FMeetingVideoConferenceAudioConferenceInstantMessagingElectronicMailBlogInteractionWikiInteractionDocumentReview“Loss” of Virtual Team “Communication Quality”Rico, D. F. (2010). The paradox of agile project management and virtual teams. Gantthead.Carmel, E. (1999). Global software teams: Collaborating across borders and time zones. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
11 Types of Virtual Teams Table of ContentsIntroduction Types of Virtual TeamsKey Practices & TechniquesKey Tools & TechnologiesKey Case StudiesConclusions & Summary
12 Basic Varieties of Teams Lipnack created a model for virtual teams in 1997Distribution & organization are its major dimensionsDistributed, cross organizational teams most complexDistributedCross OrganizationDistributedDifferentSpacetimeCollocatedCross OrganizationCollocatedSameSameDifferentOrganizationLipnack, J., & Stamps, J. (1997). Virtual teams: Reaching across space, time, and organizations with technology. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.
13 Varieties of Virtuality Lipnack extended her model for virtual teams in 2000Included notion of external joint ventures & alliancesExternal, global alliances are most complex typesGlobalSitesGlobalCross OrganizationGlobalAllianceGlobalDistributedSitesLocalCross OrganizationLocalAllianceSpacetimeLocalTraditionalWork UnitCollocatedCross OrganizationJointVentureSame PlaceSame OrganizationCross InternalCross ExternalOrganizationLipnack, J., & Stamps, J. (2000). Virtual teams: People working across boundaries with technology. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.
14 More Varieties of Virtuality Fisher developed a three dimensional model in 2001Includes the dimensions of time, place, and cultureType 2 multi cultural projects are most ambitiousTimeType 5Type 6Shift WorkersMono Cultural Global ProjectDifferent TimeDifferent TimeSame PlaceDifferent PlaceSame CultureSame CultureType 1Type 2Multi Cultural Shift WorkersMulti Cultural Global ProjectType 7Different TimeDifferent TimeIntraSame PlaceDifferent PlaceRegionalDifferent CultureDifferent CultureSame TimeDifferent PlaceSameCulturePlaceType 3Type 4Multi Cultural TeamSame LongitudeSame TimeSame TimeSame PlaceDifferent PlaceDifferent CultureDifferent CultureCultureFisher, K., & Fisher, M. D. (2001). The distance manager: A hands on guide to managing off site employees and virtual teams. New York, NY: McGraw Hill.14
15 Outsourcing vs. Offshoring Schaaf compared outsourcing vs. onshoring in 2004His model disambiguates outsourcing vs. onshoringCombining outsourcing & offshoring is the riskiestOffshoreSubsidiariesOffshoreOutsourcingInternationalOffshoringInternalService ProvisionOnshoreOutsourcingDomesticInternalExternalOutsourcingSchaaf, J. (2004). Offshoring: Globalisation wave reaches services sector. Frankfurt, Germany: Deutsche Bank Research.
16 Rightshoring vs. Offshoring Hendel introduced the concept of rightshoring in 2004There are alternatives to just onshoring vs. offshoringA popular notion is to nearshore to similar timezonesNearshoreOffshoreRetain Project HQSame TimezoneRetain Project HQDiffering TimezoneInternationalOffshoringOnshoreOnshoreRetain Project HQSame TimezoneRetain Project HQDiffering TimezoneDomesticSame TimezoneDiffering TimezoneRightshoringHendel, A., Messner, W., & Thun, F. (2004). Rightshore: Successfully industrialize SAP projects offshore. Berlin, Germany: Springer.
17 Team Dispersion Siebdrat simplified types of virtual teams in 2009 Time, space, and cultural distance introduces risksIncreased virtuality increases risk if not managed wellHighEffectivenessPerformanceEfficiencyLowSameFloorSameBuildingSameSiteSameCitySameCountrySameContinentDifferentContinentDispersionSiebdrat, F., Hoegl, M., & Ernst, H. (2009). How to manage virtual teams. MIT Sloan Management Review, 50(4),
18 Agile Distributed Teams Woodard created basic model of agile teams in 2010It compares asynchronous activities vs. distributionSynchronous activities also needed for successHighLevels of DistributionLowCollocatedPart TimeDistributed WithOverlapping HoursDistributed WithoutOverlapping HoursCollocatedAmount of Asynchronous ActivityWoodward, E., Surdek, S., & Ganis, M. (2010). A practical guide to distributed scrum. Indianapolis, IN: IBM Press.
19 Key Practices & Techniques Table of ContentsIntroductionTypes of Virtual Teams Key Practices & TechniquesKey Tools & TechnologiesKey Case StudiesConclusions & Summary
20 Standard PracticesStandard practices is an oft cited aid to virtual teamsAgile methodologies are not known in every countryTraining should be provided and standards createdVIDEOVideo used to record and playback communicationsCODINGCoding conventions are establishedWIRE FRAMESWire frames are used for visual supportUSER STORIESCustomer needs are captured in user storiesTEMPLATESTemplates are established for project communicationsPROCESSESEntire team follows the same agile processTRAININGEntire team is trained on agile methodsYoung, C., & Terashima, H. (2008). How did we adapt agile processes to our distributed development? Agile Conference, Toronto, Canada,
21 Virtual Infrastructure Infrastructure needs are most often overlookedMany countries do not have adequate computersInternet service is also a luxury in across the globeSECURITYInformation security is established to protect project informationSUPPORT24x7 infrastructure support is availableINTERNETBroadband Internet is leased and utilizedSOFTWARESynchronous and asynchronous tools are selectedSERVERSDedicated servers are established for project informationLAPTOPSEntire team is provided with laptops for office and home useMOBILEEntire team is provided with cell phones, smart phones, tablets, etc.Vax, M., & Michaud, S. (2008). Distributed agile: Growing a practice together. Agile Conference, Toronto, Canada,
22 Virtual Tools Many projects do not standardize development tools Complete development tools are easy to assembleDevelopment environments should be integratedMULTIMEDIADevelopment tools with collaborative capabilities are utilizedCONTENTWikis and other repositories are utilizedMETRICSCode metrics and defect tracking tools are usedTESTINGUnit, system, and acceptance testing tools are usedBUILDBuild tools are used for continuous integration and deploymentVERSIONINGConfiguration management tools are used to manage source codeWORKFLOWRelease and iteration workflow tools are usedCannizzo, F., Marcionetti, G., & Moser, P. (2008). Evolution of the tools and practices of a large distributed agile team. Agile Conference, Toronto, Canada,
23 Virtual Meetings Frequent communication is a key to project success Communication is better than documentation aloneA critical key is to encourage frequent interactionsSPLINTERVirtual splinter group meetings are held, i.e., design, brainstorming, etc.RETROSPECTIVEVirtual iteration retrospectives are heldDEMONSTRATIONEntire team participates in virtual demonstrationsDEVELOPMENTVirtual development meetings held, i.e., pair programmingSTANDUPEntire team participates in virtual daily standup meetingsITERATIONEntire team participates in virtual iteration planning meetingsRELEASEEntire team participates in virtual release planning sessionsSummers, S. (2008). Insights into an agile adventure with offshore partners. Agile Conference, Toronto, Canada,
24 Light Coordination The work of two or more teams requires facilitation Local/remote team leaders must communicate oftenAll team leaders can then pass on critical informationFEEDBACKCustomer feedback to developers is provided very quicklyREPORTINGManual and automated status reportingFACILITATIONProactive management of intercultural dissonanceTECHNICALCoordination between local and remote technical leadersGOVERNANCELightweight governance teams with local and remote membersLEADERSHIPRegular communications between local and remote process leadersCUSTOMERRegular communications between customers and remote teamsDrummond, B. S., & Unson, J. F. (2008). Yahoo distributed agile: Notes from the world over. Agile Conference, Toronto, Canada,
25 Periodic Rotations Periodic F2F interaction is a CSF for virtual teams Teams should meet at critical junctures, i.e., kickoffRotating customers and leaders helps establish trustENDPOINTSTeams collocate at critical junctures, i.e., kickoff, middle, closeout, etc.DEVELOPMENTTeams periodically collocate for iterationsPLANNINGTeams collocate for release and iteration planningPERSONNELIndividuals rotate to maintain healthy relationshipsLEADERSProject leaders keep local and remote teams in-synchAMBASSADORSAmbassadors are exchanged to minimize intercultural dissonanceCUSTOMERSCustomer apprises remote teams of product vision, mission, goals, objectives, etc.Robarts, J. M. (2008). Practical considerations for distributed agile projects. Agile Conference, Toronto, Canada,
26 Regional Localization Minimizing interfaces between timezones is oft citedProducts should be structured to localize activitiesIt’s easier to communicate with nearshore teamsDEVELOPMENTSubsystem interfaces are devised to localize development activitiesSOCIALIZATIONRemote teams engage in social activitiesEMPOWERMENTEmpower remote teams to make technical decisionsMEETINGSHold synchronous meetings at the local levelLEADERSEmpower local personnel to serve as process facilitatorsCUSTOMERSEmpower local personnel to serve as customer proxiesTIMEZONESMinimize organizational interfaces and organize teams by timezonesRamesh, B., Cao, L., Mohan, K., & Xu, P. (2006). Can distributed software development be agile? Communications of the ACM, 41(10),
27 Key Tools & Technologies Table of ContentsIntroductionTypes of Virtual TeamsKey Practices & Techniques Key Tools & TechnologiesKey Case StudiesConclusions & Summary
28 VersionOne One of the first APM tools created in 2003 Has about 36% of the marketshare for APM toolsFree for small teams, but increases sharply thereafterProduct RoadmappingIteration Closeout ReviewsRoadmap AuthoringSprint ReviewsCustomizationSprint RetrospectivesCollaborationIssue and Action Item TrackingPublishingBacklog reconciliationProduct PlanningTrackingBacklog Planning and ManagementSprint and Member TrackingEpics, Goals, Themes, Feature GroupsStoryboard WallCustomer Requests and Idea ManagementTask Board and Test BoardProduct Roadmapping FeaturesMy Work and My DashboardRelease PlanningReporting and AnalyticsRelease PlanningProgram DashboardRelease ForecastingProject DashboardCross Project Planning and SchedulingIteration DashboardRegression Test PlanningBurnup/Burndown ReportsSprint PlanningOther FeaturesHigh Level Sprint PlanningAgile Closeout ReviewsDetailed Sprint PlanningTest ManagementCapacity PlanningCollaborationIssue Management FeaturesOpen Source Integration
29 Rally One of the first web-based APM tools created in 2004 Has about 20-30% of the marketshare for APM toolsAlso free for small teams and gets more expensiveAgile Project ManagementCommunication and CollaborationHigh Level Roadmap DecompositionCustomizable Role DashboardsEpic, Theme, and Feature TrackingRich Text, , and RSS SupportUser Story Planning and TrackingSocial Media Style InterfacesUser Story Breakdown ManagementComments, Discussions, and IMMulti-Team ManagementDevelopment ManagementOrganization Chart MirroringRequirements ManagementMulti Level Project HierarchiesTest ManagementCommon Progress and Status ViewsDefect ManagementProgram, Feature, and Resource RollupBuild and Source Code TraceabilityRelease PlanningReportingStep by Step Release PlanningFlexible Queries and FiltersTeam Velocity DeterminationCustomer Tabular Graphical ReportsRelease and Iteration SchedulesBurnup/Burndown Reporting, etc.User Story Allocation to IterationsUser Generated Mashup SupportIteration PlanningProduct ManagementIteration Goal and Theme SupportCustomer Feedback ManagementTeam Capacity DeterminationProduct Field SupportBacklog Item PrioritizationDemand ManagementTask Creation, Estimation, and TrackingCRM Integration and Support
30 ScrumWorks Scrum project management tool created circa 2004 Similar size of user base to VersionOne and RallyLeadership in agile metrics and business valueProduct ManagementReal Time Custom DashboardsProject Milestone ManagementVelocity ChartsEpics for Project Scope GoalsMilestone ChartsCategorization using ThemesCycle Time ChartsBusiness Weighting and ROICross Product Status ReportingProgram ManagementData AccessibilityCoordination of Multiple ProjectsFull Excel Import/ExportManage and Track Overlapping GoalsPrint to User Story CardsShared Component/System ModelingWeb Services APIHigh Level Feature ManagementBackups and NotificationsIteration ManagementUser ManagementDrag and Drop Iteration PlanningFull Access ControlTeam Task BoardRole Based Access PermissionsSprint Task TrackingCross Site Role TemplatesImpediment TrackingSecurity ManagementReporting and AnalyticsIntegrationRelease Date ForecastingCommercial Environment IntegrationBasic Burnup/Burndown ReportingOpen Source Environment IntegrationCanned and Custom Report GenerationIssue and Defect Tracking IntegrationAnalysis of Planned vs. ActualsSupport for Tool Plugins
31 Extreme Planner XP project management tool created around 2004 Noted commercial tool for managing XP projectsNo free version, although it is moderately pricedMultiple Project SupportTest ManagementMultiple Project DefinitionTest Criteria GenerationMultiple Project Status TrackingTest Case Generation and CaptureMultiple Project Report GenerationTest Case InitiationMultiple Project Task TrackingTest Status ReportingUser Story GenerationIntegrated Issue TrackingCross Project Story ThemesTrack Customer Support RequestsCreate a Story from an IssueTrack Bug ReportsTheme and Story Template ReuseTrack Ad Hoc SuggestionsInter Project Story ManagementTransition Issues to User StoriesRelease PlanningReport GenerationCapture User Stories GeneratedVelocity and Task TrackingEstimate and Prioritize User StoriesIteration Burnup/Burndown ChartsView Schedule Stories for ReleasesCumulative Workflow DiagramsView Estimated Effort for ReleasesUser Defined ReportsDrag and Drop Iteration PlanningNotification and AlertsIteration Generation and ManagementNotificationsDrag and Drop User Story ManagementNotification Capture and ManagementIteration Effort EstimationNotification Viewing and FilteringIteration Status ReportingUser Selectable Notifications
32 Mingle APM tool created by ThoughtWorks in late 2007 Extensible templates for multiple agile methodsGrowing user base that is free for small teamsProgram ManagementTest ManagementSupport for Multiple ProjectsVisual Defect WorkflowsMulti Project Status TrackingUser Story and Defect TraceabilityMulti Project Report GenerationRSS and Test AlertingResource Allocation and ManagementWiki Support for Screenshots and ReportsProject ManagementProject CollaborationMulti Agile Method SupportVirtual Drag and Drop Card WallsCustomizable DashboardsIntegrated WikiWorkflow GeneratorsRSS Feeds and AlertsUser Management and Access ControlMurmurs,Queues,and CommentsRelease and Iteration PlanningEnterprise SupportHierarchical Card TreesApplication Life Cycle ManagementPrioritized Card RankingIntegration with IDEsUser Story Searching and RecallIntegration with Versioning ToolsGlobal User Story UpdatingIntegration with Build/Deployment ToolsTracking and ReportingExternal InterfacesCustomizable TemplatesI/O from Common Data FormatsCustomizable Tabs, Favorites, and ViewsIntegration with External DatabasesAdvanced Filtering, Properties, and TagsIntegration with Workflow ToolsBurndown, Velocity, and Ad Hoc ReportsIntegration with External Software
33 Target Process APM tool originally created for XP circa 2004 Now includes support Scrum, Lean, Kanban, etc.Also free for small teams and then price rises sharplyAgile Planning and TrackingQuality AssuranceBacklog Management and PrioritizationTest Plan and Test Case GenerationRelease and Iteration PlanningAutomated Test InitiationTask Boards and Personal To Do ListsUser Story/Test Case TraceabilityImpediments and Blockage ManagementDefect Tracking and ManagementLean DevelopmentReports and DashboardsValue Stream MappingCustomizable DashboardsKanban BoardsRelease and Iteration ForecastingCumulative Workflow DiagramsRelease and Iteration Burndown ChartsWork in Process LimitsTask, User Story, and Iteration ProgressCustomizationCollaborationCustomizable Development ProcessCustomizable NotificationsCustomizable User Roles and TerminologyContent Sharing and ManagementCustomizable Navigation and ListsSupport for Multiple Content TypesCustomizable Fields and Other AttributesIntegration with Synchronous ToolsIntegrationProduct SupportWeb Services APICustomer Help Desk PortalVisual Studio and Eclipse IDE IntegrationIdeas and Issues TrackingSubversion, Bugzilla, JUnit, and SeleniumBug Reports Traceable to User StoriesSingle Sign On SupportFull Customer Integration
34 Other APM Tools There are literally dozens, if not 100s of APM tools There are dozens of free open source software toolsAnnual tool & price surveys are frequently conductedVersionOne. (2010). 5th annual state of agile survey. Atlanta, GA: Author.Allen, W. (2008). Agile PM tools (hosted). Retrieved May 11, 2011 from
35 Key Case Studies Table of Contents Introduction Types of Virtual TeamsKey Practices & TechniquesKey Tools & Technologies Key Case StudiesConclusions & Summary
36 British Telecom Middleware products for phone call processing Goal was to obtain fast feedback with virtual teamsSatisfied using intensive automation for fast feedbackMaximum Status VisibilityImmediate FeedbackVirtual Release PlanningVirtual Static Analysis ReportingVirtual Iteration TrackingVirtual Build and Test ReportingVirtual Build and Test StatusVirtual Iteration Status ReportingFeedbackTelecommunicationsXP and ScrumFive SitesUK, US, India50 PeopleIntensive AutomationRuthless AutomationEffective CommunicationVirtual Static AnalysisVirtual Video ConferencesVirtual Operational BuildsVirtual Content WikisVirtual Software TestingPeriodic F2F and CollocationCannizzo, F., Marcionetti, G., & Moser, P. (2008). Evolution of the tools and practices of a large distributed agile team. Agile Conference, Toronto, Canada,
37 Yahoo! Development of commercial Internet services Goal was to adapt agile methods for virtual teamsSatisfied by minimizing use of synchronous meetingsLocalized MeetingsLocalized ProxiesLocalized Scrum MeetingsLocalized Product OwnersPeriodic Leadership MeetingsLocalized Scrum MastersReporting Good and Bad NewsPeriodic Meetings to SynchronizeAdaptationInternet ServicesScrumPeriodic F2F MeetingsSix SitesNear Realtime Info SharingUS, India, Norway, UKQuarterly F2F Release Planning90 PeopleLocalized Information RadiatorsPeriodic F2F Sprint PlanningVirtual Wiki Content RepositoriesPeriodic F2F Sprint CollocationReduce DependenciesShared Electronic Image ContentVirtual Sprint PlanningTask LocalizationVirtual Sprint Planning InitiationReduce Cross Site DependencyLocalized Sprint Planning ClosureLocalized Team IndependenceVirtual Sprint Planning FollowupsPeriodic Virtual Scrum of ScrumsDrummond, B. S., & Unson, J. F. (2008). Yahoo distributed agile: Notes from the world over. Agile Conference, Toronto, Canada,
38 ThoughtWorks Development of web applications for global clients Goal was to maintain high levels of communicationsSatisfied with F2F visits and detailed status reportingVisits & RotationsCommon UnderstandingFace to Face Kickoff MeetingsAgree on Development PracticesCustomer and Leadership VisitsSetup Wiki Process RepositoriesDeveloper and Tester RotationsShare Templates and ArtifactsCommunicationWeb ApplicationsScrumSharing ProgressThree SitesRegional AccommodationsUS,India,HK,and ChinaVirtual Timezone Standups115PeoplePlan for Local Non Work DaysLocalized Standup MeetingsExchange Data Before AbsencesVirtual Daily Leadership MeetingsStatus ReportingUse Overlapping Work SchedulesCommunicationsProduct VisioningInfrastructure NeedsPeriodic Reporting Between SitesPeriodic Visioning MeetingsSupply Laptops to All PersonnelFollowing Up Meetings with NotesLocalized Prototypes and ModelsSupply Mobile Computing DevicesUp To Date Wiki Content SharingRecorded Expert VideosSupply Internet ServicesRobarts, J. M. (2008). Practical considerations for distributed agile projects. Agile Conference, Toronto, Canada,
39 Wipro Technologies Development of software engineering products Goal was to be productive across different culturesSatisfied by use of intensive coaching and mentoringProject SetupLocal & Remote MentoringSetup Release Planning ToolsUse Mentors as CustomersSetup Modeling ToolsAssign Automation AdvisorsSetup Code and Defect ToolsUse Release Planning ToolsSetup Automated Test ToolsDaily Standups with MentoringRamping UpSetup Wiki Content RepositoryPost Daily Standups Data in WikiSoftware toolsXPTwo SitesIndia, China24 PeopleCoaching & MentoringProject KickoffFace to Face Kickoff MeetingCommunicate Using DiagramsUse Wikis for Content SharingLocalize Work if NeededPeriodically Merge CodeShrinivasavadhani, J., & Panicker, V. (2008). Remote mentoring a distributed agile team. Agile Conference, Toronto, Canada,
40 CampusSoft Development of software systems for academia Goal was to improve quality results of global teamsAchieved by using agile methods and onsite visioningProduct VisioningWorking PracticesOnsite Product VisioningStandardized Development ToolsVirtual Product Owner MeetingsVirtual Shared Content WikisOpen CommunicationsVirtual Defect Tracking ToolsUtilize Stories for DiscussionVirtual Source Code RepositoriesQualityStart With Easy User StoriesVirtual Build and Integration ToolsEducational SoftwareScrumThree SitesUK, Romania, India44 PeopleAgile & VisioningSprint PlanningOngoing MeetingsTesting and IntegrationVirtual Release PlanningPeriodic Face to Face SprintsJoint Early Test PlanningLocal Release Planning ExpertsVirtual Brainstorming MeetingsAutomated TestingVirtual Planning Poker SessionsVirtual Daily Standup MeetingsLocalized Testing and DebuggingVirtual Sharing During PlanningVirtual Sprint Review MeetingsAutomated DeploymentsWikis for Release Planning DataVirtual Retrospective MeetingsVirtual Daily Operational BuildsSummers, S. (2008). Insights into an agile adventure with offshore partners. Agile Conference, Toronto, Canada,
41 Elastic Path/Luxoft Development of electronic commerce websites Goal was to maintain context with distributed teamSatisfied with coordination in overlapping time zonesNearshore ResourcesCoordinationUse Nearby CoordinatorsVirtual Scrum of ScrumsUse Resources Within TimezoneScrummasters as Product OwnersUse Face to Face InteractionsUnrestricted CommunicationsInteraction within Two TimezonesContextCreate Architecture LiaisonE-CommerceScrumFive SitesCanada, Russia14 PeoplePartial NearshoringProcesses and ToolsCommunication PlansShared WorkspacesStandard Agile PracticesProvide Mobile Computing ToolsEstablish Infrastructure ServersVirtual Release Planning ToolsPeriodic Virtual Standup MeetingsVirtual Content WorkspacesVirtual Source Code RepositoryUse Asynchronous RetrospectivesEstablish Security MeasuresVirtual Build and Testing ToolsUse Multi Media Communications24x7 Infrastructure SupportVax, M., & Michaud, S. (2008). Distributed agile: Growing a practice together. Agile Conference, Toronto, Canada,
42 Scandinavia Development of internal & external web applications Goal was to determine if agile practices are scalableSatisfied with routine face-to-face & virtual meetingsScrum MeetingsCommunicationVirtual Audio Standup MeetingsPeriodic Leadership RotationsWeekly Video Standup MeetingsPeriodic Personnel RotationsMultimedia Splinter MeetingsPeriodic Face to Face SprintsVirtual Weekly Scrum of ScrumsScalabilityMultimedia CommunicationBackoffice SystemsScrumSprintsSix SitesDevelopment EnvironmentFin, Latvia, DE, NO, Malay.Synchronized Sprints67 PeopleVirtual Sprint Planning/TrackingOne to Many SprintsVirtual Backlog ManagementClear Sprint Deadlines and GoalsF2F & Virtual MeetingsVirtual Wiki Content ServersPeriodic Release SprintsShared Development ToolsSprint PlanningReviews & RetrospectivesVirtual Sprint PlanningVirtual Sprint Review MeetingsVirtual Sprint Application SharingVirtual Sprint Review SharingPeriodic F2F Sprint PlanningPeriodic F2F Sprint ReviewsVirtual Audio Planning FollowupsVirtual Sprint RetrospectivesPaasivaara, M., Durasiewicz, S., & Lassenius, C. (2009). Using scrum in distributed agile development. Global Software Engineering Conference, Limerick, Ireland,
43 Conclusions & Summary Table of ContentsIntroductionTypes of Virtual TeamsKey Practices & TechniquesKey Tools & TechnologiesKey Case Studies Conclusions & Summary
44 Leadership Considerations Agile management is delegated to the lowest levelThere remain key leadership roles & responsibilitiesCommunication, coaching, & facilitation are key onesCustomer CommunicationFacilitate selection of methods for obtaining and maintaining executive commitment, project resources, corporate communications, and customer interactionProduct VisioningFacilitate selection of methods for communicating product purpose, goals, objectives, mission, vision, business value, scope, performance, budget, assumptions, constraints, etc.Distribution StrategyFacilitate selection of virtual team distribution strategy to satisfy project goals and objectivesTeam DevelopmentFacilitate selection of methods for training, coaching, mentoring, and other team building approachesStandards & PracticesFacilitate selection of project management and technical practices, conventions, roles, responsibilities, and performance measuresTelecom InfrastructureFacilitate selection of high bandwidth telecommunication products and servicesDevelopment ToolsFacilitate selection of agile project management tools and interactive development environmentHigh Context MeetingsFacilitate selection of high context agile project management and development meetingsFacilitate selection of meetings and forums for regular communications between site coordinatorsCoordination MeetingsFacilitate selection of methods for maximizing periodic face to face interactions and collaborationF2F CommunicationsFacilities selection of methods for process improvement, problem resolution, conflict management, team recognition, product performance, and customer satisfactionPerformance ManagementMaholtra, A., Majchrzak, A., & Rosen, B. (2007). Leading virtual teams. Academy of Management Perspectives, 21(1),Hunsaker, P. L., & Hunsaker, P. L. (2008). Virtual teams: A leadership guide. Team Performance Management, 14(1/2),Fisher, K., & Fisher, M. D. (2001). The distance manager: A hands on guide to managing off site employees and virtual teams. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
45 Lean & Agile Proj. Mgt. Metrics Agile metrics include trust/communication principlesLean metrics align lean principles & agile practicesFlow metrics embody advanced lean principlesAgile ValuesAgile MetricsLean PillarsLean MetricsFlow MetricsEmpowered TeamsRelationshipsTeam competenceCustomer relationships, satisfaction, trust, and loyaltyIndividuals &InteractionsDecentralizationTeam motivationTeam authority, empowerment, and resourcesTeam cooperationTeam identification, cohesion, and communicationTeam trustTeam cohesionCustomer ValueTeam communicationRespectFor PeopleProduct vision, mission, needs, and capabilitiesEconomic viewCustomer InteractionProduct scope, constraints, and business valueInteraction frequencyProduct objectives, specifications, and performanceCustomerCollaborationCommunication qualityValue StreamRelationship strengthCustomer trustAs is policies, processes, procedures, and instructionsWIP constraintsCustomer loyaltyTo be business processes, flowcharts, and swim lanesKanbanCustomer satisfactionInitial workflow analysis, metrication, and optimizationIterative DeliveryContinuous FlowIteration sizeBatch size, work in process, and artifact size constraintsControl cadenceWorkingSoftwareIteration numberCadence, queue size, buffers, slack, and bottlenecksSmall batchesIteration frequencyWorkflow, test, integration, and deployment automationContinuous iterationsOperational iterationsCustomer PullValidated iterationsContinuousImprovementRoadmaps, releases, iterations, and product prioritiesFast feedbackAdaptability & FlexibilityEpics, themes, feature sets, features, and user storiesProduct demonstrations, feedback, and new backlogsOrganization flexibilityRespondingto ChangeManagement flexibilityPerfectionIndividual flexibilityProcess flexibilityRefactor, test driven design, and continuous integrationManage queuesDesign flexibilityStandups, retrospectives, and process improvementsExploit variabilityTechnology flexibilityOrganization, project, and process adaptability/flexibilityWomack, J. P., & Jones, D. T. (1996). Lean thinking: Banish waste and create wealth in your corporation. New York, NY: Free Press.Reinertsen, D. G. (2009). The principles of product development flow: Second generation lean product development. New York, NY: Celeritas.
46 Offshore Outsourcing Metrics Vashistha has complete guide to offshore outsourcingStrategic framework for evaluating offshore locationsOffers metrics and data to support decision makingFactorsSubfactorsIndiaPhilChinaCanadaLat AmIrelandCzechPolandHungaryRussiaExogenousGeopolitical EnvironmentFactors that define the characteristics of the country beyond influence of organizationGovernment SupportEducational SystemInfrastructureCost AdvantageCatalystLanguageFactors that drive offshore service delivery in a countryCultureTimezoneLabor PoolBusinessFactors related to direct advantages, supplier skills, and business issuesCompetencyQualityAttritionVashistha, A., & Vashistha, A (2006). Offshore nation: Strategies for success in global outsourcing and offshoring. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
47 Costs and BenefitsUnfacilitated virtual teams are less effective than F2FOffshoring saves about 25% due to lower labor costsOffshore savings vary based on leadership methodsVariableF2FVirtualVariable%CostLowMedHighTeam score82%78%Wage rate46%$17.5m$2.2m$4.8m$8.7mInteractions24.917.6Comm system20%$7.6m$1.0m$2.1m$3.8mTask effort5.8 hrs7.1 hrsInfrastructure7%$2.7m$0.3m$0.7m$1.3mTrust84%72%Transition and governance4%$1.5m$0.2m$0.4m$0.8mCohesion79%66%Resource redeployment1%$0.4m$0.0m$0.1m$0.2mOutcome sat86%78%Training and productivity9%$3.4m$0.4m$0.9m$1.7mProcess sat86%76%Business continuity3%$1.1m$0.1m$0.3m$0.6mEmergent leader60%75%Advisory services4%$1.5m$0.2m$0.4m$0.8mFree riders2%9%Travel costs3%$1.1m$0.1m$0.3m$0.6mDeserters0%2%Currency fluctuation3%$1.1m$0.1m$0.3m$0.6m83%74%$38.0m$4.8m$10.5m$19.0mVashistha, A., & Vashistha, A (2006). Offshore nation: Strategies for success in global outsourcing and offshoring. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.De Pillis, E., & Furumo, K. (2007). Counting the cost of virtual teams: Studying the performance, satisfaction, and group dynamics of virtual andface to face teams. Communications of the ACM, 50(12),47
48 Current Trends & Directions Virtual teamwork is 21st century business modelOpens the door to offshore/nearshore outsourcingFarshoring is normal but nearshoring is also popularFGidwana, J. (2005). Research summary: Mapping offshore markets update. San Ramon, CA: NeoIT.
49 Key Points & TakeawaysVirtual teams communicate less undermining successA key is not to eliminate them in favor of F2F teamsA better answer is to support them with leadershipCustomerSatisfactionProcessImprovementQualityRotationFastFeedbackCoordinationFastCycle TimeCoachingProductivityTrainingVirtual Team “Performance”Virtual Team “Leadership”DevelopmentToolsSynergyTrustInfrastructureStandards &PracticesIdentityCohesionVisioningInteractionRightshoringCompatibleTeamCollocatedTeamF2FMeetingVideoConferenceAudioConferenceInstantMessagingElectronicMailBlogInteractionWikiInteractionDocumentReview“Loss” of Virtual Team “Communication Quality”Rico, D. F. (2010). The paradox of agile project management and virtual teams. Gantthead.Garton, C., & Wegryn, K. (2006). Managing without walls: Maximize success with virtual, global, and cross cultural teams. Lewisville, TX: MC Press.
50 Books—Agile Virtual Teams Virtual teams are the last frontier in agile methodsNumerous books emerging on agile virtual teamsBooks by Woodward & Eckstein among the bestWoodward, E., Surdek, S., & Ganis, M. (2010). A practical guide to distributed scrum. Indianapolis, IN: IBM Press.Eckstein, J. (2010). Agile software development with distributed teams: Staying agile in a global world. New York, NY: Dorset House.Upadrista, V. (2008). Managing offshore development projects: An agile approach. Oshawa, Canada: Multi-Media Publications.Ambler, S., & Aguanno, K. (2010). Adapting agile for use with distributed teams. Oshawa, Canada: Multi-Media Publications.Mite, D., Moe, N. B., & Ågerfalk, P. J. (2010). Agility across time and space: Implementing agile methods in global software projects. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag.