Presentation on theme: "Aim: What effect did Westward expansion have on America’s Natives? Do Now: What major events involving Native Americans had occurred before the 1850’s?"— Presentation transcript:
Aim: What effect did Westward expansion have on America’s Natives? Do Now: What major events involving Native Americans had occurred before the 1850’s?
Native Americans in West Plains Indians: Native American groups living in the American mid- West Horses introduced by Spanish: become essential to life
Native Americans in West Mostly nomadic: primarily depend on hunting buffalo herds Relative equality in gender roles: female Indians not subservient to men
Americans Push West Homestead Act (1862) and Transcontinental Railroad (1863) cause more Americans to desire Plains Indian land Buffalo hunted to near extinction: In an attempt to “starve out” the Plains Indians, federal government orders large-scale hunting of buffalos; virtually extinct by 1890’s
The Indian Wars Treaty of Fort Laramie (1851)- U.S. grants sovereign territory to Plains Indians in return for safe passage to West Western settlers ignore this, and begin settling land anyway
The Indian Wars U.S. military supports settlers claims, routinely pushing Indians onto smaller and smaller reservations of land Many Indians resist, claiming past treaties are being violated; Battles and massacres occur routinely What steps can the government take to stop this problem?
End of the Indian Wars Indian Appropriations Act (1871)- Groups of Indians no longer recognized as independent, all Indians now officially deemed “wards of the state” Indians moved onto reservations, land only a fraction of the size they were previously given
Wounded Knee Massacre Ghost Dance: New religious movement in 1890, promises that the performance of Ghost Dance will result in the removal of whites and return of Indian lands American troops worried; seek to disarm Indians fearing the dance as a prelude to attack https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7PQj- NHp83A&noredirect=1 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AQDkefN 5-bk
Wounded Knee Massacre 25 soldiers killed 300 Indians killed, about 200 women and children 20 Medals of Honor given to U.S. troops Marks the end of large- scale Indian resistance
Aftermath of Indian Wars Dawes Act (1887): Granted U.S. citizenship to Indians who gave up communal land ownership in return for “personal” ownership of plots of land Remaining land auctioned off to settlers
Aftermath of Indian Wars Assimilation: Indian customs continue to be treated as “savage”, pushed to learn “American” ways and customs
Effect of Indian Wars Native American poverty rate: 25% Unemployment rate on reservations often over 60% (25% during Great Depression, 6.5% today) Median income around $15,000 On reservations: Life expectancy: around 48 years 70% school drop-out rate 50% of adults have diabetes 82% more likely to commit suicide Highest drug and alcohol abuse rates