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Pages 252-259 Business Management VCE Units 1 & 2.

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1 Pages 252-259 Business Management VCE Units 1 & 2

2 Key Knowledge: effectiveness of methods of communication, including barriers and/or actions which limit and/or enhance communication; appropriate methods of communication for different management situations; Key Skills: accurately use relevant management terms; communicate effectively in business-related scenarios; recommend and apply a range of communication methods to practical and/or simulated business situations; justify the use of different communication methods in business-related situations.

3 Within an organisation, there is internal and external communication How might we communicate business objectives internally? How might we communicate business objectives externally? To deliver effective messages, the sender must use a communication method that is appropriate for the audience and purpose. An example, an appropriate communication method when dismissing an employee is face-to-face.

4 Two different types of communication methods: verbal and non-verbal VerbalNon-verbal Verbal communication uses words, both written and verbal. -Letters -Memos -Face-to-face meetings -Emails -Text messages Non-verbal communication uses any communication that is not spoken -Facial expressions -Gestures -Logo

5 Communication barriers are anything that distorts or interrupts the message and its meaning. Communication barriers impede good communication. Communication can fail due to a number of barriers, some of which are caused by the sender, some introduced by the receiver and others as a result of the external environment. Research shows that about 70% of workplace mistakes are the result of inefficient communication. It is also the most quoted cause of employee frustration and business failure. The eight major barriers to effective communication are: language, filtering, improper attitude, information overload, discriminatory language, perception, the competing environment, and hearing but not listening.

6 Communication is shaped by language. Our selection of words and phrases, the sequence of words, the emphasis and tone we give to them – all of these create meaning. It is not just what we say, but how we say it that influences the messages we communicate. Many words have negative and positive associations and are emotionally charged. Also the same word may mean something different to different people.

7 Language creates communications problems when:  The meaning of words and phrases, especially colloquial expressions, are not shared and understood.  Not everyone is fluent or literate in the language being spoken.  Jargon is used that excludes people who are not familiar with it.  Words and phrases are discriminatory.

8 Filtering occurs when a sender amends information, thereby reducing the accuracy of the communication, so the receiver will see it more favourably. In these cases, the real message is not conveyed. An example is someone filtering an unpleasant message to their manager for fear of how they might react.

9 An improper attitude adopted by a manager when sending a message will be a barrier to effective communication. The way the message is delivered always affects the way in which the message is received. Examples are anger and superiority.

10 Information overload is an excess of information causing the reader to become overwhelmed and confused. On any day, an ‘average’ manager or employee will be exposed to about 600 corporate messages, ranging from billboards, TV commercials, and emails. The result is information overload – too much information all at once, which may frustrate receivers and result in much of it not being listened to or examined.

11 Sexist, racist or other words that discriminate against any group of people will block effective communication. A manager should therefore ensure communication is not offensive in relation to a person’s ethnicity, religion, sexual orientation or disability.

12 What do you see – old lady or young woman?




16 Perception is the process through which people select, organise and interpret information to create meaning, and is determined by a person’s attitudes, values and experiences. What an individual perceives may be very different from reality; people see and hear the same thing differently.

17 Background activities in the working environment may interfere with the message, particularly if it is complicated and requires concentration (e.g. open plan offices). While open plan offices might be conducive to team work, for some people concentrating in this environment can be difficult.

18 An barrier to effective communication occurs when the listener is not paying full attention to the speaker. ACTIVE Listening gives the listener a structured way of responding to this type of difficult situation. To actively listen you must make no comment, interruption or judgment regarding what is being said, and give full attention to the speaker’s mood and words. When the speaker is finished, the listener speaks.

19 First paraphrase the thoughts of the speaker just the way you heard them and recognise the mood of he speaker. Active listening tends to build trust, compromise or cooperation rather than aggression, frustration or withdrawal. The active listener has encouraged the communication rather than discouraged it.

20 Sensing -Postpone evaluation by not forming an opinion until the speaker is finished -Avoid interrupting the speaker -Remain motivated to listen to the speaker Evaluating -Emphasise with the speaker -the listener organises the speakers ideas into key points Responding -Sufficient eye contact -Sending back channel signs (eg. I see) -Clarifying the message and summarising it during appropriate breaks

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