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Chapter 19.1 & 19.3: Genetics of Viruses and Bacteria

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 19.1 & 19.3: Genetics of Viruses and Bacteria"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 19.1 & 19.3: Genetics of Viruses and Bacteria

2 Structure and Genome of Viruses
Viruses are smaller and more simple that prokaryotes Lack structures and metabolic machinery found in most cells Most are a nucleic acid enclosed in a protein coat Genomes have many possibilities -double stranded DNA -single stranded DNA -double stranded RNA -single stranded RNA Most have genome in linear sequence or circular ranging from 4 genes to several hundred

3 Structure and Genome Protein shell enclosing genome is called a capsid
*many possible shapes - rod, polyhedral, phage Viral envelope – derived from (membrane) of host cell, and an accessory structure used to aid in attachment while infecting host cell *may contain proteins, glycoproteins phospholipids and even some enzymes

4 Chapter 19.2 Viral Replication

5 Viral Reproductive Cycles
Isolated virus cannot produce or survive long without a host cell Each virus has a host range of cell it can infect -lock and key fit occurs between outside of virus and specific receptor molecules on the surface of the cell -some have wide range, Ex: West Nile -target specific tissues – Ex: cold virus in upper respiratory tract

6 Reproductive cycle (General)
1. Virus enters cell and uncoats, releasing viral DNA and capsid proteins 2. Host enzymes replicate the viral genome 3. Host enzymes transcribe viral genome to make mRNA then translate to make viral proteins 4. Viral genomes and capsids self assemble into new virus particles and exit cell

7 Reproductive cycle of Phages
Lytic cycle – reproductive cycle that results in death of host cell -refers to last stage in which bacterium lyses and releases phages produced

8 Reproduction of Phages
How have bacteria survived? 1. Natural selection has allowed bacterial mutants to modify receptor sites that are not recognized by phages 2. DNA from the phage that enters host bacterium can be recognized as foreign and cut up by restriction endonucleases 3. Some may be able to coexist with phages

9 Reproduction of Phages
Lysogenic cycle – replication of phage genome without destroying host -viral DNA is incorporated by genetic recombination into specific site in host’s chromosome – creates a prophage -prophage remains silent but is passed each time the host cell divides and synthesizes its DNA *prophage can switch to lytic cycle and release from host -triggers include exposure to radiation or presence of certain chemicals

10 Lytic and Lysogenic Cycles
Virulent phages – reproduce only by lytic cycle Temperate phages – can reproduce by both modes of lytic and lysogenic

11 Animal Viruses Two key variables separate animal viruses from phages:
1. nature of genome – DNA or RNA - double stranded or single stranded 2. Presence or absence of membrane envelope - used to aid attachment - glycoproteins bind to receptors

12 Animal Viruses List of animal viruses Cycle of RNA virus

13 RNA Viruses Retroviruses – most complicated
-contains enzyme –reverse transcriptase which will transcribe RNA to DNA EX: HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) *Provirus – permanent resident of host cell after newly made viral DNA enters nucleus and integrates into the DNA of chromosome

14 Retrovirus cycle

15 Chapter 19.3 Viruses , Viroids, and Prions

16 Viral Diseases Quick facts:
-most viruses may damage or kill cells by release of hydrolytic enzymes from lysosomes -some can cause infected cells to produce toxins that lead to symptoms Vaccines – harmless variants or derivatives of pathogenic microbes that stimulate the immune system

17 Emerging Viruses Emerging viruses are classified as suddenly appearing or suddenly come to the attention of medical scientists Where do they come from? Three processes contribute to the emergence of viral diseases: 1. mutation of existing viruses- high rate of errors in replication with no proofreading 2. Spread of existing viruses form one host species to another 3. Dissemination of viral disease from small isolated population can lead to widespread epidemics

18 Plant Viruses Plant viruses have same mode of replication as animal viruses Symptoms include bleached or brown spots on leaves or fruit, stunted growth, damaged roots and flowers, and diminished crop quality and yield Two major routes of spreading virus 1. horizontal transmission - plant infected from external source - insects, pruning sheers, irrigation 2. vertical transmission – plant inherits virus from infected parent

19 Viroids and Prions Viroid – circular RNA molecules that do not encode proteins but can replicate in host plant cells -cause errors that lead to abnormal development or stunted growth - single molecule can cause spread of disease

20 Prions Prions- infectious protein formed from a misfolded protein found in brain cells - very slow acting agents with long incubation periods (up to 10 years) -virtually indestructible - causes a number of degenerative brain diseases in animals - possibly spread by transmission in food

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