2 First AmendmentCongress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.
3 First Amendment The First Amendment protects Speech Religion Press No state religionFreedom of WorshipPressAssemblyPetition
4 Second AmendmentA well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the People to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed.
5 Second Amendment The Second Amendment protects: Controversy: The right to bear arms (weapons)Why was this amendment included?Controversy:Does this refer to individual gun ownership?Or does this refer to officials, like the National Guard and police officers?
6 Third AmendmentNo Soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the Owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.
7 Third Amendment The Third Amendment protects: Against soldiers being forced to live in your house during peace time.Why did Madison include this amendment?
8 Fourth AmendmentThe right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.
9 Fourth Amendment The Fourth Amendment protects: Citizens from unreasonable searches of property, except for when police officers have a warrant.
10 5th AmendmentNo person shall be held to answer for any capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.
11 5th AmendmentNo person shall be held to answer for any capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand JuryCitizens have the right to a Grand Jury- type of jury that determines whether there is enough evidence for a trial
12 5th Amendmentnor shall any person be subject for the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb;Citizens are protected from “double jeopardy”Why?
13 5th Amendmentnor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himselfCitizens are protected from self-incrimination- they can “Plead the Fifth”Why?
14 5th Amendmentnor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of lawThe government must respect all of the legal rights that are owed to a person according to the lawEx.: Miranda Rights
15 5th Amendmentnor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensationIf the government employs eminent domain (taking private property for public use), then they must provide “just compensation.”
16 Sixth AmendmentIn all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district where in the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the Assistance of Counsel for his defense.
17 Sixth AmendmentIn all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trialIf a citizen is accused of a crime, he or she will have a trialWhy?
18 Sixth Amendmentby an impartial jury of the State and district where in the crime shall have been committedA citizen will have a jury for the trial. The jury won’t be unreasonably biased.Why?
19 Sixth Amendment to be confronted with the witnesses against him The people who accused you of the crime will be at the trial.Why?
20 Sixth Amendmentto have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the Assistance of Counsel for his defense.A citizen will be given a lawyer, as long as a citizen wants one.
21 Seventh AmendmentIn suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise re-examined in any court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law.
22 Seventh AmendmentIn suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preservedIf a citizen sues someone, then a jury will be present for the trial.Why?
23 Eighth AmendmentExcessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.No unreasonable bails, no torture.
25 Eighth AmendmentCruel and Unusual: drawing and quartering, public dissecting, burning alive, or disembowelingThe death penalty has usually been ruled NOT cruel and unusual (even Utah’s and Oklahoma’s death penalty!)
26 Ninth AmendmentThe enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others [rights] retained by the people.Enumeration: listingConstrued: interpreted
27 Ninth AmendmentThere are some rights that are NOT listed in the Bill of Rights. The people still have these rights.The question is, what are those rights?
28 Ninth Amendment Unlisted rights: Privacy Right to bear arms (Abortion?)Right to bear arms
29 Tenth AmendmentThe powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.Not delegated: not given
30 Tenth AmendmentPowers NOT GRANTED to the Constitution are the powers of the states. If not granted to the states, it is a power of the peopleExamples:Drivers licenses are controlled by statesMarriage laws are controlled by states
31 Tenth Amendment The Tenth Amendment is a restatement of Federalism: The sharing of power between a national government and state governments.Meant to ensure fairness between each (check and balances)Problems with this?