4 What is temperature?Temperature is a degree of hotness or coldness the can be measured using a thermometer.Temperature is measured in degrees on the Fahrenheit, Celsius, and Kelvin scales.Each of the Earth’s layers have a different temperature range.Temperatures increase with depth. Deeper layers have higher temperatures
5 Densitydensity (ρ) of a body is a measure of how tightly the matter within it is packed together.The box on the left is more dense, because there is more matter in that box.
6 Each layer has it’s own density. The deeper layers are composed of heavier materials;they are hotter, denser and under much greater pressurethan the outer layers.
7 Each layer is made up of different ingredients Earth’s interior consists of three major layers; the crust, the mantle, and the core.Each layer is defined by its chemical composition or the elements in each layer.Each layer is made up of different ingredients
8 The Layers of the Earth are the Crust, Mantle and the Core.
9 Layers of the Earth Chart Name__________________________Date_________________Period_______ Lab Group________Layers of the Earth ChartLayerLocationDescriptionTemperatureDensityCompositionParts of LayerCrustThe top LayerThe least dense layerContinental Crust:(part that we walk on)Made of graniteLess denseOceanic Crust:(under water)Made of basaltMore denseMantleThe middle LayerMore dense than the crustUpper Mantle:Mixture of solid and molten rockLithosphere (tectonic Plates)Lower Mantle:Mostly molten rockAsthenosphere ( how tectonic plates move)CoreThe inside layerThe most dense layerOuter Core:liquid iron and nickelWhere scientists think the Earth’s magnetic field comes fromInner Core:Solid iron
11 The CrustThe crust is typically about 32 kilometers thick beneath continents, and about 8 kilometers thick beneath oceans.
12 The thin, outermost layer of the Earth is called the crust The thin, outermost layer of the Earth is called the crust. It makes up only one percent of the Earth's mass.
13 There are two types of crust: Continental and OceanicContinental Crust is what we walk on.Oceanic Crust is under the water.
14 The temperature on the Earth’s crust averages from 20 degrees Celsius near the top of the crustto 870 degrees Celsius at the bottom of the crust.Temperatures increase the deeper you go.
15 The crust is relatively light and brittle The crust is relatively light and brittle. Most earthquakes occur within the crust. The crust is the least dense layer and it floats on top of the mantleDensity of the crust ranges from g/cubic cm
16 Elements in the Earth’s Crust The Earth's thin, rocky crust is composed of oxygen, silicon, aluminum, calcium, sodium, potassium and some iron and magnesiumSilicon + Oxygen = silicates
17 FE or Iron and Mg or Magnesium FE or Iron and Mg or Magnesium is heavier than Si or Silicon and Al or aluminumSiliconAluminum
21 Rich in Fe (Iron), Mg (Magnesium) Poor in Si (Silicon), Al (Aluminum) Oceanic Crust is thinner but more dense.It is made up of Basalt.Rich in Fe (Iron), Mg (Magnesium) Poor in Si (Silicon), Al (Aluminum)
22 LayerLocationDescriptionTemperatureDensityCompositionParts of LayerCrustThe top Layer32 km thick beneath continents8 km thick beneath oceansThin brittle layer makes up about 1% of Earth’s massAverage degrees CelsiusThe least dense layerg/cmSilicon, oxygen aluminum, calcium, sodium potassiumSome Magnesium and ironContinental Crust:(part that we walk on)Made of graniteLess denseOceanic Crust:(under water)Made of basaltMore dense
28 Density of the mantle ranges from 3.4-5.6 g/cm The Mantle is more dense than the crust but less dense than the core.
29 Mantle is composed of silicon, oxygen, magnesium, iron, aluminum, and calcium The mantle has more iron than the crust.
30 These materials are semi liquid like jell-o. This is where lava and magma comes from
31 Located below the crust 2900km thick Flexible, semi liquid (flows ) LayerLocationDescriptionTemperatureDensityCompositionParts of LayerMantleThe middle LayerLocated below the crust2900km thickFlexible, semi liquid (flows )Makes up 80% of Earth’s massThis is where magma and lava come fromdegrees CelsiusMore dense than the crustg/cmSilicon, oxygen, magnesium, iron aluminum and Calcium(more iron than the crust)Upper Mantle:Mixture of solid and molten rockLithosphere (tectonic Plates)Lower Mantle:Mostly molten rockAsthenosphere ( how tectonic plates move)
32 Beneath the mantle is the Earth's core Beneath the mantle is the Earth's core. The Earth's core consists of a fluid outer core and a solid inner core.
39 Density of the core ranges from 9.9 -13.1 Outer coreInner coreThe Earth’s Core is the most dense layer
40 Outer Core: liquid Nickel and Iron Inner Core: Solid Iron
41 Outer Core is made up of liquid nickel and Iron It is liquid because the pressure is lower.Inner Core is a solid iron sphere. The reason that the iron is solid is that the pressure at the center of the earth is significantly higher than the pressure in the outer core.
42 Inner Core is 1,230 Km from Earth’s center LayerLocationDescriptionTemperatureDensityCompositionParts of LayerCoreThe inside layerBeneath the mantleOuter Core is 2,550 km thickInner Core is 1,230 Km from Earth’s centerComposed of heavy materials under a great amount of pressureLiquid Outer CoreSolid Inner Core2,500- 5,000 degrees CelsiusThe most dense layerg/cmOuter Core: liquid Nickel and IronInner Core: Solid IronOuter Core:liquid iron and nickelWhere scientists think the Earth’s magnetic field comes fromInner Core:Solid iron