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Chapter 5: Motivation.

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1 Chapter 5: Motivation

2 Introduction Fierce competition across industries and a wide basket of choices and offerings from companies makes motivating employees vital to any business Focus on a variety of key motivating plans ranging from monetary incentives to rewards and recognition

3 Frederick Herzberg: KITA
Negative Physical KITA Negative Psychological KITA Positive KITA Either positive nor negative KITA instills motivation – it only results in short-term movement

4 Frederick Herzberg: Two-factor Theory
Hygiene factors (extrinsic to the job): Company policy and administration Supervision Interpersonal relationships Salary Status Security Motivator factors (intrinsic to the job): Achievement Recognition for achievement The work Responsibility Growth or advancement

5 The Job Characteristics Model
Five core job characteristics: Skill variety Task identity Task significance Autonomy Feedback Followed by three critical psychological states: Experienced meaningfulness Experienced responsibility Knowledge of results Results in: Increased work satisfaction Performance Reduced absence Employee turnover

6 The Job Characteristics Model
In general, leaders must initiate and develop their social capital by focusing on three aspects: The structural dimension: the overall patterns of relationships in the organization The relational dimension: the nature of connections between individuals in the organization The cognitive dimension: the extent to which employees within a social network share a common perspective or understanding High social capital directs high internal motivation leading to high performance and making employees more successful in achieving goals

7 McGregor’s Theory X & Y Theory X:
Management assumes employees are inherently lazy and will avoid work if they can and that they inherently dislike work. Management believes that workers need to be closely supervised and comprehensive systems of controls developed A hierarchical structure is needed with narrow span of control at each and every level Employees will show little ambition without an enticing incentive program and will avoid responsibility whenever they can Theory Y: Management assumes employees may be ambitious and self-motivated and exercise self-control. Managers believe that employees will learn to seek out and accept responsibility and to exercise self-control and self-direction in accomplishing objectives to which they are committed. Given the right conditions, most people will want to do well at work. The satisfaction of doing a good job is a strong motivation.

8 McGregor’s Theory X & Y Theory Y is a process of:
Creating opportunities Releasing potential Removing obstacles Encouraging growth Providing guidance “Management by objectives” and not “Management by control” The application of Theory Y can be slow, and progress in typically done in small steps including: Decentralization and Delegation Job Enlargement Participation and Consultative Management Performance Appraisal

9 Exercise and Practice Routines
Form groups of 4- 6 people Each person writes down three things that motivates them in their job and three things that would motivate them even more Present your answers to each other Agree on one factor that would motivate you all even more Class discussion on the groups’ motivation factors

10 Bibliography and Reference Materials
Garg, P. & Renu, R. (2006). New model of job design: motivating employees' performance. Journal of Management Development. Vol. 25 (6), pp Hertzberg, Frederick. (1968). One More Time: How Do You Motivate Employees? Harvard Business Review. Vol 46, pp Maslow, A. H. (1943). A Theory of Human Motivation. Psychological Review. Vol. 50 (4), pp McGregor, Douglas M. (1957). The Human Side of Enterprise. Management Review. November 1957, pp

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