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Published byEmory Price Modified over 4 years ago

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Levels of Measurement Nominal measurement Involves assigning numbers to classify characteristics into categories Ordinal measurement Involves sorting objects based on their relative standing on an attribute

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Levels of Measurement (cont.) Interval measurement Occurs when objects are rank- ordered on a scale that has equal distances between points on the scale (no inherent starting point) Ratio measurement Occurs when there are equal distances between score units and there is a rational, meaningful zero (with inherent starting point) 90 cm is twice as long as 45 cm with absolute zero point 90°F is not twice as hot as 45°F with arbitrary zero point Scores?

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Frequency Distributions A systematic arrangement of numeric values on a variable from lowest to highest, and a count of the number of times each value was obtained Frequency distributions can be described in terms of: ◦ Shape ◦ Central tendency ◦ Variability

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Distribution of Values: Central Tendency Index of “typicalness” of set of scores that comes from center of the distribution Mode— the most frequently occurring score in a distribution 2 3 3 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Mode = 3

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Distribution of Values: Central Tendency (cont.) Median— the point in a distribution above which and below which 50% of cases fall 2 3 33 4 5 6 7 8 9 Median = 4.5 Mean— equals the sum of all scores divided by the total number of scores 2 3 3 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Mean = 5.0

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Using Inferential Statistics to Test Hypotheses

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Inferential Statistics A means of drawing conclusions about a population (i.e., estimating population parameters), given data from a sample Based on laws of probability

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DAGHANG SALAMAT Me and my idol Denise Polit

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