 # Managerial Accounting by James Jiambalvo

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Managerial Accounting by James Jiambalvo
Chapter 3: Process Costing Slides Prepared by: Scott Peterson Northern State University

Chapter 3: Process Costing
Chapter Themes: Inventories are still very important. Think about how costs can be attached to large numbers of homogeneous products. Compare and contrast Job-Order and Process Cost systems. Learning Objectives: Describe how products flow through departments and how costs flow through accounts. Discuss the concept of an equivalent unit. Calculate the cost per equivalent unit. Calculate the cost of goods completed and the ending Work in Process balance in a processing department. Describe a production cost report.

Product Cost Flows Just as a product passes through several departments prior to completion, costs flow through several accounts before the product is recorded in finished goods. Related Learning Objectives: Describe how products flow through departments and how costs flow through accounts. Discuss the concept of an equivalent unit. Calculate the cost per equivalent unit. Calculate the cost of goods completed and the ending Work in Process balance in a processing department. Describe a production cost report.

Product Flows Through Departments
Products typically flow through two or more departments. Materials, labor and overhead are added in each department. Material is often added at the beginning of the process. Labor and Overhead are often grouped together and added uniformly throughout the process. Recall that Labor and Overhead are referred to as conversion costs. Related Learning Objectives: Describe how products flow through departments and how costs flow through accounts. Discuss the concept of an equivalent unit. Calculate the cost per equivalent unit. Calculate the cost of goods completed and the ending Work in Process balance in a processing department. Describe a production cost report.

Cost Flows Through Accounts
In addition to materials, labor and overhead, a processing department may have a cost called transferred-in cost. This cost is incurred in one department and then transferred to the next. And it is treated like any other manufacturing cost (material, labor, overhead) with respect to that department. Related Learning Objectives: Describe how products flow through departments and how costs flow through accounts. Discuss the concept of an equivalent unit. Calculate the cost per equivalent unit. Calculate the cost of goods completed and the ending Work in Process balance in a processing department. Describe a production cost report.

Calculating Unit Cost Process Costing is essentially a system of averaging. Specifically, manufacturing costs incurred during a specific time period are divided by a number called equivalent units to calculate an average unit cost. Related Learning Objectives: Describe how products flow through departments and how costs flow through accounts. Discuss the concept of an equivalent unit. Calculate the cost per equivalent unit. Calculate the cost of goods completed and the ending Work in Process balance in a processing department. Describe a production cost report.

Equivalent Units In calculating unit cost, it is necessary to compute equivalent units. When partially completed units are converted to whole units they are referred to as equivalent units. A good analogy is the concept of a full-time equivalent (FTE) employee. 6 half-time (20 hours per week) employees make 3 full-time equivalents. Related Learning Objectives: Describe how products flow through departments and how costs flow through accounts. Discuss the concept of an equivalent unit. Calculate the cost per equivalent unit. Calculate the cost of goods completed and the ending Work in Process balance in a processing department. Describe a production cost report.

Cost Per Equivalent Unit
The average unit cost in a process costing system is referred to as a cost per equivalent unit. The formula is as follows: Cost per equivalent unit = (Cost in beginning WIP + Cost incurred in current period)/(Units completed + Equivalent units in ending WIP). Related Learning Objectives: Describe how products flow through departments and how costs flow through accounts. Discuss the concept of an equivalent unit. Calculate the cost per equivalent unit. Calculate the cost of goods completed and the ending Work in Process balance in a processing department. Describe a production cost report.

Calculating and Applying Cost per Equivalent Unit: Mixing Department Example
See if you can calculate cost per equivalent unit based on the following information in the Mixing Department. Unit Information: Beginning WIP 10,000 gallons, 80% complete with respect to labor and overhead. 70,000 gallons started and 60,000 completed. Ending WIP 20,000 gallons 50% complete. Related Learning Objectives: Describe how products flow through departments and how costs flow through accounts. Discuss the concept of an equivalent unit. Calculate the cost per equivalent unit. Calculate the cost of goods completed and the ending Work in Process balance in a processing department. Describe a production cost report. More

Calculating and Applying Cost per Equivalent Unit: Mixing Department Example
Cost Information: Beginning WIP \$18,000 materials, \$7,800 labor and \$23,400 overhead. During the month \$142,000 of material cost and \$62,200 of labor cost was added. Overhead is applied at a predetermined rate of \$3 per dollar of labor or \$186,600. See the next slide for the solution. Related Learning Objectives: Describe how products flow through departments and how costs flow through accounts. Discuss the concept of an equivalent unit. Calculate the cost per equivalent unit. Calculate the cost of goods completed and the ending Work in Process balance in a processing department. Describe a production cost report. More

Calculating and Applying Cost per Equivalent Unit: Mixing Department Example (solution)
\$6 per unit. Related Learning Objectives: Describe how products flow through departments and how costs flow through accounts. Discuss the concept of an equivalent unit. Calculate the cost per equivalent unit. Calculate the cost of goods completed and the ending Work in Process balance in a processing department. Describe a production cost report.

Production Cost Report
A Production Cost Report is an end-of-the-month report for a process costing system that provides a reconciliation of units and a reconciliation of costs as well as details of the cost per equivalent unit calculations. Related Learning Objectives: Describe how products flow through departments and how costs flow through accounts. Discuss the concept of an equivalent unit. Calculate the cost per equivalent unit. Calculate the cost of goods completed and the ending Work in Process balance in a processing department. Describe a production cost report.

Reconciliation of Units
Assuming no units are lost due to shrinkage, the number of units in beginning WIP plus the number of units started should be equal to the number of units completed plus the number of units left in ending WIP. [Inventory is very important.] Related Learning Objectives: Describe how products flow through departments and how costs flow through accounts. Discuss the concept of an equivalent unit. Calculate the cost per equivalent unit. Calculate the cost of goods completed and the ending Work in Process balance in a processing department. Describe a production cost report.

Reconciliation of Costs
For each period, the total cost that must be accounted for is the sum of the costs in beginning WIP plus costs incurred during the period. This sum must be equal to the costs transferred out plus whatever cost is left over in ending WIP. Related Learning Objectives: Describe how products flow through departments and how costs flow through accounts. Discuss the concept of an equivalent unit. Calculate the cost per equivalent unit. Calculate the cost of goods completed and the ending Work in Process balance in a processing department. Describe a production cost report.

Basic Steps in Process Costing: A Summary
Account for the number of equivalent units. Calculate the cost per equivalent unit for material, labor and overhead. Assign cost to items completed and items in ending WIP. Account for the amount of product cost. Related Learning Objectives: Describe how products flow through departments and how costs flow through accounts. Discuss the concept of an equivalent unit. Calculate the cost per equivalent unit. Calculate the cost of goods completed and the ending Work in Process balance in a processing department. Describe a production cost report.

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