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WHAT IS Autism Spectrum Disorder?

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Presentation on theme: "WHAT IS Autism Spectrum Disorder?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Dr. Nancy J. Aguinaga

2 WHAT IS Autism Spectrum Disorder?
What is your preconceived notion or idea when you hear or see the term autism? Preconceived feelings? Rainman?, a child rocking in the corner?, based on your previous education and own experience with people

3 WHAT IS Autism Spectrum Disorder?
The fastest growing diagnoses of childhood (from ‘91 to ‘99-up 1108%) Very complex, often baffling developmental disability First described by Leo Kanner in 1943 as early infantile autism “Auto” – children are “locked within themselves.” For next 30 years, considered to be an emotional disturbance

4 WHAT IS ASD? Today, autism is a severe form of a broader group of disorders These are referred to as pervasive developmental disorders Typically appears during the first 3 years of life Expressed very differently – a wide range of abilities, strengths and limitations.

5 WHAT IS ASD? Neurological in origin – not emotional, not the refrigerator mom Prevalence figures vary (1 in 166 in text) 1:110 NOW 4 times more prevalent in boys No known racial, ethnic, or social boundaries No relation to family income, lifestyle

6 WHAT IS ASD? Autism impacts normal development of the brain in areas of social interaction and communication skills and behavior. Difficult to communicate with others and relate to the outside world. Occasionally, aggressive and/or self-injurious behavior may be present.

7 WHAT IS ASD? May exhibit repeated body movements (hand flapping, rocking). Unusual responses to people Attachment to objects Resistance to change in routine Sensory sensitivities

8 WHAT ARE THE TYPES? Actually, the “umbrella” heading is Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD). Autism is one of the 5 PDDs. For now – DSM IV All have commonalities in communication and social deficits Differ in terms of severity Differ in IQ levels DSM 5 - ASD

9 1. Autistic Disorder Impairments in social interaction, communication, and imaginative play. Apparent before age 3. Also includes stereotyped behaviors, interests, and activities Autism added to the DSM III in 1980

10 2. Asperger’s Disorder Impairments in social interactions, and presence of restricted interests and activities No clinically significant general delay in language Average to above average intelligence Hans Asperger – a Vienese medical student– 1944 – his work not translated into English until 1981 and entered into the DSM IV in 1994

11 3. Pervasive Developmental Disorder – Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS)
Often referred to as atypical autism Used when a child does not meet the criteria for a specific diagnosis, but there is severe and pervasive impairment in specified behaviors Entered into the DSM IV in 1987 revision

12 4. Rett’s Disorder Progressive disorder which, almost exclusively occurs in females Period of normal development and then the loss of previously acquired skills Also loss of purposeful use of hands, which is replaced by repetitive hand movements Beginning at age of 1-2 years, typically in first 5 months Characterized by head growth deceleration and loss of previously acquired skills between 5-48 months Entered into the DSM IV in 1994

13 5. Childhood Disintegrative Disorder
Normal growth and development prior to manifesting social interaction (generally the first 2 years) Then significant loss of previously acquired skills in at least 2 of the following areas(language, social skills, adaptive behavior, bowel or bladder control, play, or motor skills) before the age of 10 Entered into the DSM IV in 1994

14 IDEA- Individuals with Disabilities Education Act
Autism was not an official disability category under federal education law until 1990 Before this services were received under other categories such as ID(MR), OHI , or BD

15 Conclusions on Types Autism is a spectrum disorder
This means that symptoms and characteristics can present themselves in wide variety of combinations, from mild to severe Individuals with autism can be very different from each other Kluth “2003” “If you know one person with autism, you know ONE person with autism” “Autism” is still commonly used to refer to any of the 5 PDDs

16 Cause? Good agreement in general that autism is caused by abnormalities in brain and central nervous system development (typically result in over or under reactions to various sensory stimuli) May include chemical exposure, viral and genetic factors Vaccines? – NO NO NO Currently no medical test to confirm A diagnosis is made by behavioral observations

17 Famous People with Autism
People on the spectrum have made some of the greatest contributions to the world we know…

18 Dr. Temple Grandin

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