Presentation on theme: "Chapter 9 The Human Population. Chapter 9 Big Idea The size and growth rate of human population has changed drastically over the last 200 years. Those."— Presentation transcript:
Section 1: Studying Human Populations Describe how the size and growth rate for human population has changed over history What factors lead to population changes Analyze populations using Age Structure Diagrams Define demographic transition
Describe what you see on this graph How long did it take to get to 1 billion, than 2, 3,4,5,6 How many people are living today? Did You Know? Basic sanitation was rare even in the medical profession until 1861, when Dr. Ignaz Semmelweis discovered that doctors’ hand washing greatly reduced patient mortality.
Why did it take so long to reach 1 billion? Why do you think it took off around the late 1880s? Interesting Fact: Of all the humans ever born, approximately 6-7% are alive today.
Rapid population growth has led to serious environmental problems
Studying Human Populations Demography: the study of human population How many people live where? How long are you expected to live? How many children are you likely to have.
2 General Categories of Populations Developed Countries – Higher average income – Slower population growth – Diverse industrial economies – Stronger social support systems Developing Countries – Lower average incomes – Rapid population growth – Simple, agriculture-based economies
Exponential Growth Exponential Growth: rapid growth often seen as J-Shaped curve on a graph Is exponential growth sustainable?
Forecasting Population Size Will new schools be needed? Should we be building more housing? Should farming practices be improved? Predictions like this often wrong because human behavior changes
POPULATION SIZE http://www.worldometers.info/worl d-population/
Forecasting Population Size Age Structure: the distribution of ages in a population Age Structure Diagrams aka Population Pyramids What is useful about these diagrams?
What do age structure diagrams show? What are the “reproductive years”? Why is that important in forecasting future population growth?
Which “type” of countries are going to see most of the population growth? Which “type” of countries do people live longer lives?
Ages 0-14 Ages 15-44 Ages 45-85+ Rapid Growth Guatemala Nigeria Saudi Arabia Rapid Growth Guatemala Nigeria Saudi Arabia Slow Growth United States Australia Canada Slow Growth United States Australia Canada Male Female Zero Growth Spain Austria Greece Zero Growth Spain Austria Greece Negative Growth Germany Bulgaria Sweden Negative Growth Germany Bulgaria Sweden Population Age Structure Fig. 10-14 p. 184
Survivorship: percent of population likely to survive to any given age Survivorship Curves – show how much of the population survives for a given age Type I Wealthy, developed countries Most people live to be very old Type II Similar death rates at all ages Type III Very poor, undeveloped countries Many children die Forecasting Population Size
Survivorship Individuals of different ages have different probabilities of dying Survivorship curves show how the likelihood of death varies with age.
Type I survivorship curves are for species that have a high survival rate of the young, live out most of their expected life span and die in old age. Humans are a good example of a species with a Type I survivorship curve Type II survivorship curves are for species that have a relatively constant death rate throughout their life span. Death could be due to hunting or diseases. Examples of species exhibiting a Type II survivorship curve are coral, squirrels, honey bees and many reptiles.
Type III survivorship curves are found in species that have many young, most of which die very early in their life. Plants, oysters and sea urchins are examples of species that have Type III survivorship curves.
If a tree wants to successfully reproduce, how many seeds should it spread? If a couple in India knows for sure there child will survive to adulthood, will they decide to have more or less children do you think?
What causes population to rise? Population Changes = (births + immigration) – (deaths + emigration) For world population growth we are only concerned about births and deaths. Many developed countries would have negative population growth without immigration.
Migration: movement INTO (immigration) or OUT of (emigration) an area Population Change = (births + immigration) – (deaths + emigration) U.S. growth continues because of both births and immigration
Death rates on the decline… people living longer Why? Population Change = (births + immigration) – (deaths + emigration) Better hygiene, sewage disposal, clean water, medicines, education, access to food, nutrition
Life Expectancy Life Expectancy: average number of years members of a population are expected to live Improvement in most of world Lower INFANT MORTALITY
Fertility Rates Fertility Rate: number of children born each year per 1,000 women Total fertility rate (lifetime) Replacement level
What does this graph show? Total Fertility Rate – average number of births in one woman’s lifetime How have U.S. fertility rates changed?
Fertility and Women Two main factors impact fertility rates worldwide Education level of women (knowledge of family planning) Economic level of women Generally : more education = more wealth = lower fertility rates
Demographic Transition Every Country Goes Through It A model that describes how economic & social changes affect population growth rates
Demographic Transition Every Country Goes Through It Explain what you see on this chart
Stage 1 : High Birth AND Death rates = little population change Stage 2 : Death Rates Fall, Birth Rates Still High = Population Growth Stage 3: Death Rates Low, Birth Rates Drop = Population Growth Slows Stage 4: Death Rates Low, Birth Rate Low = Population Declines DESCRIBE EACH STAGE: WHAT DO YOU SEE?
Calculations A town currently has a population of 20 people. If 10 people are born, 8 people die, 3 immigrate and 1 emigrate, what is the population?
Calculations USA currently has a population of 320,000,000 people. If 5,000,000 people are born, 2,000,000 people die, 200,000 immigrate and 50,000 emigrate, what is the population?
Rule of 70: Doubling Time Currently, a city has a population of 10 million. If the population is growing at 10%, when will it reach 20 million? (70/rate = doubling time) What is the growth rate if the population increases from 200 million to 400 million in 14 years ? (70/doubling time = rate)
Section 1 Review Describe how the size and growth rate for human population has changed over history What factors lead to population changes Analyze populations using Age Structure Diagrams Terms: Demography, Age Structure, Survivorship, Fertility, Migration, Life Expectancy
China’s One-Child Policy In 1970, the average Chinese woman had about six children. Since 1979, China has used a system of rewards and punishments to enforce a one-child limit to slow population growth. In 2005, there were 32 million more males than females in China under the age of 20 Talk About It - Is it ethical for governments to limit or encourage human population growth?
Section 2 : Population Trends What are the problems associated with rapid human population growth? Compare developed and developing (less developed) countries Investigate strategies for reducing population growth
Problems With Rapid Growth Lack of infrastructure to support population Water supplies Sewers Roads Schools Power Plants Hospitals Housing
Problems With Rapid Growth Using up resources too quickly Water supplies Vegetation – Food supplies – Wood/fuels : wood supplies critical to life in many regions Land
Problems With Rapid Growth Shortage of Fuel Wood Supply of fuel ensures – Boiled water – Cooked food
Problems With Rapid Growth Unsafe water supplies Sewage mixing with water supplies – Cholera – Dysentery – Typhoid 1 billion lack clean water 3 million/yr die
Clean Water Lacking If the millions of women who haul water long distances had a faucet by their door, whole societies could be transformed.
Problems With Rapid Growth Land becomes scarce Arable land : land that can grow crops Trade-offs made: – agriculture, housing, natural habitats Which do you think typically wins out?
Problems With Rapid Growth Urbanization: movement of people from rural areas to cities Much of world is going through Increased demand on infrastructure
Problems With Growth In U.S. Suburban sprawl: work in cities live in suburbs – Decay of inner cities – Increased traffic – Loss of farmland – Decreased wildlife habitat
Growth Is Slowing but still growing Medium growth rate – fertility rates decline to replacement level by 2050
Section 2 Review What are problems associated with rapid human population growth? How do developed and developing (less developed) countries compare? What are some strategies for reducing population growth?