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Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches

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Presentation on theme: "Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches"— Presentation transcript:

1 Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches
Chapter 2 Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches

2 Educational Research 2e: Creswell
Key Ideas Definition of quantitative and qualitative Research Development of quantitative research Development of qualitative research Differences between quantitative and qualitative in the process of research Design procedures within your approach Use of quantitative or qualitative approach Educational Research 2e: Creswell

3 Definitions of Qualitative and Quantitative Research
A type of educational research in which the researcher decides what to study, asks specific, narrow questions, collects numeric (numbered) data from participants, analyzes these numbers using statistics, and conducts the inquiry in an unbiased, objective manner. Qualitative Research A type of educational research in which the researcher relies on the views of participants, asks broad, general questions, collects data consisting largely of words (or text) from participants, describes and analyzes these words for themes, and conducts the inquiry in a subjective, biased manner. Educational Research 2e: Creswell

4 The Development of Quantitative Research: Historical Trends
Statistical Procedures Test and Measurement Practices Research Designs Educational Research 2e: Creswell

5 Historical Trends: Quantitative Statistical Procedures
Correlational procedures Comparing groups Cause/Effect relationships Educational Research 2e: Creswell

6 Historical Trends: Quantitative Testing and Measurement
Testing mental abilities (late 19th century) Measuring achievement (e.g. SAT) Predicting achievement from standardized measurements Educational Research 2e: Creswell

7 Historical Trends: Quantitative Research Designs
Educational Surveys (late 19th century) Simple Experiments (early 20th century) Multiple groups and tests (by 1935) Longitudinal designs Books on research design (e.g. Kerlinger 1964) Educational Research 2e: Creswell

8 The Development of Qualitative Research: Major Themes
Philosophical Ideas Procedural Developments Advocacy Practices Educational Research 2e: Creswell

9 Historical Trends: Qualitative Philosophical Ideas
Naturalistic Inquiry or Constructivism consider the participant’s point of view describe participant’s view within a setting or context This is an alternative perspective to traditional research Educational Research 2e: Creswell

10 Historical Trends: Qualitative Procedural Developments
Central Phenomenon rather than research question or hypothesis Methods such as interviews, observations and interviews Designs such as case studies, grounded theory and narrative Educational Research 2e: Creswell

11 Historical Trends: Qualitative Advocacy Practices
The qualitative researcher is not objective, politically neutral observer The qualitative researcher is an observer of the human condition The meaning of the research is plural, political and open The project is collaborative and participatory Educational Research 2e: Creswell

12 Reviewing the Literature
Characteristics of Quantitative and Qualitative Research in the Process of Research Quantitative Characteristics Steps in the Research Process Qualitative Characteristics Exploratory/ Understanding a Central Phenomena Descriptive/Explanatory Identifying a Problem Major Role Justify Problem Reviewing the Literature Minor Role Justify Problem Specific and Narrow Measurable/Observable Specifying a Purpose General and Broad Participants’ Experience Pre-determined Instruments Numeric Data Large numbers General, emerging form Text or image data Small Number Collecting Data Analyze and Interpret Data Text Analysis Description and Themes Larger Meanings of Findings Statistical Description of Trends Comparisons/Predictions Flexible and Emerging Reflexive and Biased Standard and Fixed Objective and Unbiased Report and Evaluate Educational Research 2e: Creswell

13 Ways in Which Quantitative and Qualitative Research are Similar
They both follow the steps in the process of research Format for reporting the research problem is the same Both have data collection steps Educational Research 2e: Creswell

14 Reviewing the Literature Analyze and Interpret Data
How Procedures or Research Designs Relate to Quantitative and Qualitative Research and Steps in the Process of Research Steps in the Research Process Two Approaches Research Designs Quantitative Qualitative Identifying a Problem Quantitative Qualitative Reviewing the Literature Experimental Correlational Survey Quantitative Qualitative Specifying a Purpose Quantitative Qualitative Collecting Data Mixed Action Quantitative Qualitative Analyze and Interpret Data Ethnography Grounded Theory Narrative Quantitative Qualitative Report and Evaluate Educational Research 2e: Creswell

15 Quantitative Designs and Uses
Experimental Research Correlational Survey Explaining whether an intervention influences an outcome for one group as opposed to another group Associating or relating variables in a predictable pattern for one group of individuals Describing trends for the population of people Intervention Non-Intervention Educational Research 2e: Creswell

16 Qualitative Designs and Uses
Ethnographic Research Grounded Theory Narrative Exploring the shared culture of a people group Exploring common experiences of individuals to develop a theory Exploring individual stories to describe the lives of people Educational Research 2e: Creswell

17 Combined Designs and Uses
Mixed Methods Research Action Combining quantitative and qualitative data to best understand and explain a research problem. Using quantitative and qualitative data for individuals to study problems that they face in their setting Educational Research 2e: Creswell

18 Educational Research 2e: Creswell
How Do You Choose Whether to Use the Quantitative or Qualitative Approach? Match the approach to the problem Fit the approach to your audience Relate the approach to your experiences Educational Research 2e: Creswell

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