Presentation on theme: "3. Migration Outline of work 1.Definitions and key terms 2.Push and pull factors 3.Migration in Ireland 4.The impact of migration on donor and reciever."— Presentation transcript:
3. Migration Outline of work 1.Definitions and key terms 2.Push and pull factors 3.Migration in Ireland 4.The impact of migration on donor and reciever regions 5.Ethnic Issues and migration 6.EU and Irish Policy 7.Rural to Urban migration in the developed world 8.Rural to Urban migration in the developing world.
What do you remember from Junior Certificate? Migration was a topic in the Junior cert syllabus….. In groups discuss what you remember about this topic.
Key terms and definitions Emigration (E = exit) : People leave an area Immigration ( I = in): People arrive into a region Donor Region: The country or region from which migrants leave. Host Region: The country or region that recieves migrants Net migration: The difference between the number of immigrants and the number of emigrants.
Push Factors: Things that make a person want to leave an area Pull Factors: Anything that attracts people to an area Refugee: Someone who leaves their country because of a well founded fear of persecution based on their religion, race or politics. They have been given refugee status in a country to which they have moved. Asylum seeker: A person who applies for refugee status in a country to which they have moved. Internally Displaced Person: Someone who is forced to move within their own country due to persecution, conflict or environmental disaster.
Types of Migration Keywords 1.Forced 2.Voluntary 3.International 4.Internal Activity: work in pairs to define the keywords. Try to give one example for each type of migration within your explanation
The Impact of migration on donor and reciever regions. Do you remember what a donor and a reciever region are? Read the case studies in the book. They look at the positive and negative effects of migration on donor and reciever regions. Read the positve effects first. Summarise the main points in your copies. Read the negative effects. Summarise
Activity Each group will be given either a positve or negative effect on the donor or reciever region. The groups will teach the effect to the rest of the class. Work together. Summarise the main points. Everyone should take part.
Ethnic and Racial Issues Race Racism Ethnic Ghettos Rioting France
Definitions Race = the division of humanity into groups based on their physical features Racism = the belief that people are inferior because of their skin colour or ethnic group Ethnic = a group of people with a common heritage, culture. Ghetto = areas of low income, poor quality housing associated with particular migrant groups e.g. Irish ghettos in Boston. ***new migrants often live close to others can also be a positive influence e.g. Chinatown New York***
Activity Read the case study of racial tensions: rioting in France. Answer the following questions. 1.Why has France a large migrant population. 2.When did the riots occur? Who was involved? 3.What happened to the two teenagers? 4.What were the pre existing tensions that caused the riot? 5.Explain what you found out about unemployment rates in France. 6.Explain some of the violence and effects of the riots. 7.How are the French government combatting the issue.
1840s – 1950s What event occurred during the 1840s in Ireland that would have affected migration? The famine 1.High emigration rates. 1950s 408,000 people emigrated. 2.English speaking countries 3.Low marriage rates, older age at marriage 4.Worked as agricultural labours, construction workers and domestic service providers ie cooks, cleaners and child minders. 5.Emigration seen as the country’s main social problem.
1960s 1.Boom period for the world economy. 2.Remittances and foreign investment brought money into the area 3.Creation of many jobs in the industrial sector. Living standards rose by 50%. 4.Allowed people to stay in Ireland. Net out migration fell sharply during this period.
1970s 1.Period of net immigration 2.104,000 people returned to Ireland 3.Feel good factor of joining the EEC, skills shortages, effects of the Common Agricultural Policy. 4.Emmigration did not stop but it slowed down. 5.Large numbers of skilled individuals returned with their families. High school enrolements at this time.
1980s What happened during the 1980s? Recession 1.Increase in government debt. CAP needed to be reformed. 2.Emigration rose sharply and quickly. Became one of the main social issues of the day. Levels peaked in 1986-1991 3.Mainly highly educated people emigrating (brain drain).
1990 - 2009 Since the 1990s there has been important changes to the pattern of migration in Ireland. 1.An increase in labour migration Economic growth and the demand for skilled and unskilled labour led to the inmigration of workers to Ireland. Led to increase in cultural diversity.
2. Inflow of EU Migrants EU immigrants make up more than half of all foreign immigrants who have arrived in Ireland since 2000. This has changed the country’s population 3.Net in migration instead of out migration 4.Increase then decrease in asylum applications Up to 2003 there was an increase in the numbers of refugees and asylum seekers in Ireland. The number of people seeking asylum in Ireland increased dramatically from 362 in 1994 to 11,634 in 2002 before falling to 7,900 in 2003.
Reasons for the decrease: 1.‘Safe country of origin’ principle which states that you do not need asylum in another country if your origin country is ‘safe’ Since 03 all EU states (27) are ‘safe’. This has discouraged people from seeking asylum here. 2010 just under 2000 people sought asylum in Ireland. 2. The removal of the automatic right to permanent residence for foreign national parents of Irish born children. 3. The Citizenship Referendum removed an Irish born child’s automatic right to citizenship when the parents are not Irish nationals.
2010 Return to Outmigration Economic recession. 2010 out migration was 34,500 people the highest number recorded since 1989. Emigrants include both Irish and non-Irish nationals. The rate of out migration is slowing down the overall growth in Ireland’s population
Migration In Ireland Green card system Work permit Intra- Company Transfer Permit Spousal and Dependent Permit Rights Asylum Seeker Refugee
Migration Policy in Ireland Migrants from outside the European Economic Area must apply for a work permit. A work permit will only be issued if there is no suitably qualified Irish national available to fill the post. There are four categories of permits
1. Green Card System Annual salaries of €60,000 and above. Issued for two years and may lead to the granting of a permanent or long term residence. Can also bring their families and spouses to join them
2. Work Permit Non green card occupation in the €30,000 to €60,000 annual salary range. Granted initially for two years and can be extended for up to another 3 years
3.Intra-Company Transfer Permit Transitional senior management, key personnel and trainees. Designed to allow multinational companies to transfer these staff between branches in different countries on a temporty basis
4.Spousal/ Dependent Work Permit Spouses and dependents of employment permit holders who are entitled to live in Ireland to apply for work permits.
Rights of migrant workers Same employment and protection rights as Irish workers. Have to be resident in Ireland for two years before they can receive some social welfare payments. Permits will not be issued for jobs that are below minimum wage. *It is possible to become an Irish citizen after 5 years of legal residence.
Rights of asylum seekers/refugees 2010 260,730 people sought asylum in the EU. Just under 2,000 in Ireland. Once in Ireland asylum seekers are not permitted to work, set up a business or leave the state while their application is being processed. They are entitled to accommodation in specified centres across the country. They receive health care, education and welfare support. If refugee status is not granted the person may be deported. Once status has been granted a person has the same rights as any Irish national.
EU Migration Policy Illegal trafficking ‘Fortress Europe’
Migration Policy in the EU Aims to develop a common system for immigration and asylum. Common asylum policy aims to work towards the long term resident status of refugees and develop a return and readmission policy. 6month limit on the right to work.. Migrants can legally stay for six months while looking for work but must leave or formalise their residnecy after 6 months.
Why is a migration policy needed? 1.Different EU countries have different rules. 2.Some countries receive more migrants than others. 3.Illegal trafficking of migrants into the EU is increasing.
Benefits of a common migration policy Help reduce trafficking Help support countries who are under pressure due to lare numbers of migrants Make processing of applications quicker and easier. A common policy would make it easier for migrants to get work permits and residency.
Problems… Could create a fortress Europe Might encourage an ‘us and them’ attitude amongst EU citizens Rights of genuine migrants may be weakened when faced with strict migration rules.
Rural to urban migration in the developed world Case Study: Dublin Think about the problems associated with more people coming into a region. Think back to regional geography In groups write some of these problems/issues down.
Rural – Urban migration in Dublin Read the photocopied case study on rural to urban migration in Dublin Summarise the case study into your own words.
Rural to Urban migration in the developing world Can you think of a region we have studied that was overpopulated because of rural to urban migration??? Regional question: The growth of a city: Kolkata. Can you remember the problems associated with Kolkata?
Problems with the growth of Kolkata Unplanned, overcrowded shantytowns e.g. bustees Inadequate services Lack of hygeine Unemployment and poverty Lack of clean water Lack of open space Poor schools Inadequate transport
How can this be solved? Discuss some ideas about how the growth of kolkata could be solved.
Examination Questions Activity: Using your examination papers write the common exam questions into your copies. Go to the start of your notes where you wrote the outline of the chapter. Traffic light the learning outcomes