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Chapter 9 – Cellular Respiration

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 9 – Cellular Respiration"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 9 – Cellular Respiration
Section 9-1 Chapter 9 – Cellular Respiration Overview of Cellular Respiration (Know sequence of events) Definition – The process that releases energy (ATP) by breaking down _______ and other food molecules in the presence of ________ (_________). This is an _______ reaction. NAD+ acts as the electron carrier (NAD – Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. Occurs in all eukaryotic cells. 6O2 + C6H12O CO2 + 6 H2O = Energy (36 ATP)

2 ATP – ____________ ________________
Section 8-1 ATP – ____________ ________________ Supplies energy for all cellular processes _________ __________ 3 _______ ________

3 Figure 8-3 Comparison of ADP and ATP to a Battery
Section 8-1 ADP – ____ ______ ATP – ____ ______ Energy Energy Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) + Phosphate Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) Partially charged battery Fully charged battery

4 Figure 9–2 Cellular Respiration: An Overview
Section 9-1 Electrons carried in NADH Mitochondrion Pyruvic acid Electrons carried in NADH and FADH2 Glucose Krebs Cycle Electron Transport Chain Glycolysis Mitochondrion Cytoplasm

5 Krebs Cycle Fermentation Electron Transport Alcohol Lactic Acid
Section 9-1 Glycolysis O2 present No O2 present Krebs Cycle Fermentation Electron Transport Alcohol Lactic Acid

6 1st step – Glycolysis is when one molecule of ________ is broken in _____, producing two molecules of _______ acid, a 3-C compound. If oxygen is present then pyruvic acid enters _____ Cycle If no oxygen then pyruvic acid enters ____________ process

7 Glycolysis – occurs in the cytoplasm Starting molecule is glucose
Section 9-2 Glycolysis – occurs in the cytoplasm Starting molecule is glucose ATP Production – __ ATPs are needed at beginning, but 4 are produced, total of 2 net gain for the cell. C. _____ is a carrier for electrons to the electron transport chain (____). D. 1 glucose = 2 pyruvic acid + 2 ATP = 2 NADH E. Total ATP = ___

8 To the electron transport chain
Figure 9–3 Glycolysis Section 9-1 Glucose 2 Pyruvic acid To the electron transport chain

9 Anaerobic – ___ _____ ______
III. Fermentation Anaerobic – ___ _____ ______ Alcoholic fermentation by yeast and some bacteria Pyruvic acid = _______ alcohol + CO2 + ____+ _______ dioxide causes bread to rise, heat in baking evaporates any alcohol. Used to produce beer and wine

10 2. Lactic acid fermentation
______ acid + NADH Lactic acid + NAD+ Produced in muscles during _________ exercise when the body cannot supply enough _______. Leads to soreness. Unicellular organisms ferment food and beverages. Ex: yogurt, _______, buttermilk, sour cream, pickles, sauerkraut

11 Fermentation (without oxygen)
Chemical Pathways Section 9-1 Glucose Krebs cycle Electron transport Glycolysis Alcohol or lactic acid Fermentation (without oxygen)

12 IV. ______ Cycle 2nd step, occurs in ______________ Starts with pyruvic acid and gives off ________ dioxide Energizes NAD+ to form NADH (_________ carriers) high energy Results: High energy carriers (NADH and FADH2) take __________ to ETC Carbon dioxide is breathed out 2 _____ formed

13 Figure 9–6 The Krebs Cycle
Section 9-2 OAA – Oxaloacetate is a 4 Carbon molecule with low energy FADH2 – Flavin adenine dinucleotide + hydrogen Citric Acid Production Mitochondrion Succinate – 4 carbon compound with energy NADH – Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide + hydrogen OAA succinate Alpha-ketogluterate

14 Fermentation (without oxygen)
Section 9-1 Glucose Krebs cycle Electron transport Glycolysis Fermentation (without oxygen) Alcohol or lactic acid

15 V. Electron __________Chain (ETC) – 3rd step
V. Electron __________Chain (ETC) – 3rd step Occurs between __________ in the mitochondria in all animals, plants and _____________ Uses high energy electrons (stored in NADH and ______2) from Krebs to convert ____ to ATP. Carrier proteins ________ in the mitochondrial membrane pass high-energy ________ along and ______ H+ into the intermembrane space Oxygen is the final electron ________ and combines with hydrogen to form water

16 As the amount of H+ builds in the __________
As the amount of H+ builds in the __________ space, one H+ rushes back across the ______ membrane causes ATP synthase to spin, re- energizing ADP to _____. Each pair of e- generate enough energy to _______ 3 ADP to 3 ATP. Total ATP = ______ Total ATP generated in all steps of ________ = 36

17 Figure 9–7 Electron Transport Chain
Section 9-2 Electron Transport Hydrogen Ion Movement Channel Mitochondrion Intermembrane Space ATP synthase Inner Membrane Matrix ATP Production


19 VI. Energy and Exercise Cells normally contain enough _____ for a few seconds of intense activity. After 90 seconds, cellular respiration supplies ATP For long-term activity,__________stored in the muscle is burned and lasts minutes. After that, other ___________ such as fat are burned for energy (aerobics, running & swimming) Need to breathe ______ after exercise to repay oxygen debt and rid body of ______ acid

20 Electron Transport Chain
Flowchart Section 9-2 Cellular Respiration Glucose (C6H1206) + Oxygen (02) Glycolysis Krebs Cycle Electron Transport Chain Carbon Dioxide (CO2) + Water (H2O)

21 VI. Comparing ____________ and Cellular Respiration
See figure ________ Photosynthesis does not release energy from glucose ____________ removes CO2 and _________ returns it. ________ in photosynthesis is _______ in respiration.

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